Saturday, October 7, 2023

Open Access Monograph Series: Daidalos: Heidelberger Abschlussarbeiten für Klassische Archäologie

[First posted in AWOL 16 June 2016, updated 7  October 2023]

Daidalos: Heidelberger Abschlussarbeiten für Klassische Archäologie 
ISSN: 2567-384X (Online)
Daidalos - Heidelberger Abschlussarbeiten für Klassische Archäologie "Daidalos" ist eine Schriftenreihe für überdurchschnittlich gute Abschlussarbeiten des Instituts für Klassische Archäologie der Universität Heidelberg.

Monsters and the Mind: Composite Creatures and Social Cognition in Aegean Bronze Age Glyptic

Monsters and the Mind constitutes a first systematic approach to the extant repertoire of “monster” depictions on Aegean Bronze Age seals and sealings with a special focus on Minoan Crete. The study categorizes and frames a typology of hybrids and composite creatures such as griffins and bird-ladies, Minoan Genii and Dragons, and interprets these in the context of their respective times of origin and circulation. A comprehensive catalogue including all published seals bearing hybrids and composite creatures supplements the typological and interpretative approach of the text.

Lucie Siftar

Das Phänomen der unvollständigen Gestalt in der griechischen Kunst: Unterschiedliche Facetten eines besonderen Darstellungsmittels

Although the ‘incomplete form’ is an element all so present within the narrative context of ancient Greek pictorial art, it has not yet received the attention it truly deserves. The systematic analysis of this phenomenon, notably on vase paintings, has shown that cutting-off a figure with a frame has to be understood as an intentional instrument, whose purpose was not only to save pictorial space but also to enlarge the action space. Regarding the principles of visual perception, incomplete forms could be used to convey special semantic information as well as to enhance the visual impact of the viewer.

Das Erbe des Minos: Die Überbauung minoischer Ruinen im dorischen Kreta

Ever since the discovery of the palace of Knossos by Arthur Evans the interest of archaeological scholars in the island of Crete has always focused on the civilization of the Minoans in the Bronze Age. The succeeding periods from the early Iron Age until the time of the Roman Empire have been until recently researched less intensive. This is also true because these succeeding time periods produced rather less spectacular architectural evidence than other regions of the Greek world, when Crete no longer played a major role in Greek history. As a result, architectural features from later phases resting on top of Bronze Age structures have always received less attention. This study intends to close the gap and will bring together all the evidence, where Minoan architecture was paved over by later buildings between the early Iron Age and Roman times, showing all the relevant sites in a single overview for the first time. It will show that most of the Minoan structures were built over in the Geometric-Archaic and the Hellenistic times, with a few Roman examples that might be historically significant. The study tries to put this evidence into the context of the historical evolution of the island throughout antiquity and to prove that many of the Minoan sites were built over for a specific reason. Especially the sanctuaries in the hinterland might indicate that the Greek inhabitants wanted to lay a claim on certain territories. In the case of the re-settled palaces the study also wants to consider the role played by the myths about King Minos on Crete. Whether or not these architectural activities might indicate the Dorian Cretans considered the long forgotten Minoan civilization as their ancestors is also part of the study´s discussion.

Susanne Bosche

Die Selbstrepräsentation von Handwerkern und Händlern im Grabkontext in der Provinz Gallia Belgica: Aspekte der Vermittlung sozialer Identität in einer multikulturellen Gesellschaft

The study at hand focusses on the analysis of the social background underlying the self-representation of crafts- and tradesmen in the context of graves in the Roman province Gallia Belgica during the 2rd and 3rd centuries AD. It also deals with conceivable phenomena stemming from an enhanced contact between the local population and Roman culture. In the first part of the study it is suggested that the high number of stone grave monuments for crafts- and tradesmen found for the period in question seemingly needs to be considered in the context of changes in memorial culture and of materials used, and that it cannot be ascribed to only social or economic factors.

The grave monuments’ iconographic design, which is analyzed with regard to their economic aspects in the second part of the study, does not indicate a stabilization of the visual language that could have been read as the expression of a collective identity. The conceptual background of the representativeness of craftsmanship and trade is defined by the production of goods of high and verifiable quality. At the same time the trans-regional transport of goods was more important for this consideration than their actual sale. This was because not the exchange of goods for money, but the interaction with clients was of priority. The third part of the study deals with the social classification of the respective individuals. This is possible only to a limited extent: The individuals’ legal status in particular cannot be reconstructed in a conclusive manner. Their names and clothes, however, suggest that they predominantly must have been members of the local population. The grave monuments, that were highly heterogenic in their forms, indicate a claim for social prestige - among other tendencies concerning the expansion of technical demands in memorial construction in the context of commemorative culture. In many cases this claim is being combined with the characterization of the respective individual through the inclusion of prestige goods. The thus identifiable claim for prestige coincides with a tendency for an increased orientation to elements of Roman culture. Due to the lack of studies addressing political ambitions and phenomena discernable in the economic sphere, it should be assumed that internationality was established at least partially as a social value.

Ariane Elisabeth Tatas

Die figürlichen Grabstelen im römischen Thessaloniki

„Ταῦτα, φίλοι ∙ μετὰ ταῦτα τί | γὰρ πλέον; οὐκέτι ταῦτα. |στήλλη ταῦτα λαλεῖ καὶ λί|θος ∙ οὐ γὰρ ἐγώ“.  A funerary epigram of the 3rd century AD from Eumeneia in Phrygia ends with these words. The first words give the impression that the deceased might be addressing passersby and onlookers of his grave’s stele for the last time. Naturally, this impression is a deceiving one, because whichever hopes or fears our Gaius might have had with regard to the afterworld, we certainly will not be able to get him to speak ever again. With this in mind we here at least will attempt to interpret the language of the gravestones as conveyed through both images and words. The study at hand thus examines the figural sepulchral steles of Thessaloniki and its chora during the Roman period, i. e. primarily between the early 1st century BC and the end of the 3rd century AD. The goal was to gather the material in its entirety.

Selma Abdelhamid

»Ein Ostwind wird Dich mitten auf dem Meer zerbrechen«: Phönizische Schiffswracks vom 8. bis 6. Jh. v. Chr.

Over the centuries Phoenician ships navigated from the Syrian-Lebanese coast over and beyond the Mediterranean assisted by wind propulsion. The majority of the reports written about these exploratory trips and trade voyages have not survived. No vessels were found until the mid-20th century, so that only very limited knowledge about Phoenician seafaring was available to scholars. During the last decades, however, numerous wrecks were found: Even if they are ‘shattered’ and sunken, these ships still can be considered as graphic evidence for communication structures from the Iron Age and Archaic Period. They allow for the direct reconstruction of Phoenician trade during its prosperous period for the first time. The wrecks in Ashkelon are proof of the wine trade. Those in Mazarrón, in the Eastern Mediterranean, give insight on shipbuilding and the active trade on the Iberian Peninsula. Finally, the findings in Bajo de la Campana and Rocheslongues attest to the trade with natural resources that seldom can be proven ashore.

Kristin Schuhmann

Die Schöne und die Biester: Die Herrin der Tiere im bronzezeitlichen und früheisenzeitlichen Griechenland

The M.A.-thesis at hand analyzes the earliest depictions of Potnia Theron from the Bronze and early Iron Ages in Greece and on Crete. The concept behind this motive is widespread in the whole Mediterranean region, in Central and Southern Europe, as well as in the Near East and Egypt throughout numerous epochs and cultural environments. The study focusses on a group of portrayals of Potnia Theron from the 2nd and early 1st millennium BC. They depict a divine female figure in connection to animals. For this reason the name “Mistress of the Animals” (Potnia Theron) has become common. It is one of the most important pictorial subjects of Aegean and early Greek cult iconography - and one of the most difficult ones to interpret as well. The core themes of the study are the systematic examination of the different schemes the Potnia Theron is portrayed in and further the analysis of the character of the goddess. Therefore, the study attempts to find clues about the provenance as well as indications for continuity in the depiction. Moreover, it also sets out to discover evidence for cultural contact to the Near East and the Aegean.

Zöller Sebastian

Die Gesellschaft der frühen „Dunklen Jahrhunderte“ auf Kreta: Eine Untersuchung der archäologischen Hinterlassenschaften der Bevölkerung Kretas während der Spätminoisch IIIC und Subminoischen Zeit im Bezug auf ihre soziale Aussagekraft und Bedeutung

The study at hand titled „Die Gesellschaft der frühen ‚Dunklen Jahrhunderte’ auf Kreta“ [„Society in the early ‚Dark Ages‘ on Crete“] is an endeavor to trace back societal structures on Crete during the given timeframe. In order to understand the stratification of the society, as well as the political situation on the island, the study focusses on the examination of archaeological sources and the Cretan population’s inheritance. As far as they can be reconstructed with archaeological methods, aspects about the economy, trade, religion and cult are all being considered as part of everyday life as well. The analysis concentrates on the epoch spanning over the Late Minoan IIIC and Subminoan periods, i.e. the time in Cretan Prehistory after the final breakdown of the Mycenaean Palace System around 1200 BC which after the destruction of the Minoan palaces around 1490 BC had also been in control of Crete. The results of these examinations portray how all aspects of everyday life were influenced by interplay between change and continuity. The main part of the study includes an extensive catalogue of all chronologically relevant sites on the island. It also contains an evaluation of the archaeological finds with respect to their socio-political validity and significance for an epoch in Cretan Prehistory that still has not been researched thoroughly yet.

Die Rezeption römischer Schlachtenreliefs im Antikenfilm

Depictions of battles not only paint a picture of victory and defeat or of “friend” and “foe”, but also contain a tightly woven network of clues as to what makes the “enemy” actually an “enemy”, why it is necessary to fight him, or by which means victory is achieved.
The aim of this book is to identify these clues by analysing examples of battle reliefs from the Roman imperial era and from battle scenes in movies set in ancient Rome, thereby providing insights into the societal concepts and values of the time in which the depictions were created. The evaluation intends to differentiate current visual habits and expectations from the statements underlying the reliefs of the Roman imperial era and to provide impulses for a more immediate examination of ancient monuments.

Mochlos in the Protopalatial Period: Ceramic Analysis and Social Perspectives in the Middle Bronze Age

This book is focused on the analysis of the ceramic material that was excavated in eight different parts of the Mochlos settlement, covering an extended time span from MM IB (1925/1900-1875/1850 BCE) to MM II (1875/1850-1750/1700). Since the Mochlos material is stratified and covers all three sub-periods of the Protopalatial period (MM IB-MM IIA and MM IIB) it affords a unique opportunity for understanding aspects of production, distribution, and consumption of ceramic material and reflects social dynamics, both intrasettlement and extending into the broader region of the Mirabello Gulf and East Crete.

So einfach – in der Theorie: Überlegungen zur Interdisziplinarität in der Klassischen Archäologie

The present study concentrates on the applicability of interdisciplinary theoretical models within Classical Archaeology. It starts off with an analysis of the term “science” and its evolution in order to extrapolate essential technical terms such as inter-, trans- and multidisciplinarity. This is followed by an overview of the history, methods and theories of Classical Archaeology. Since this discipline has often been criticized for a lack of interdisciplinary theories, the author compares the conception of Classical Archaeology with the modus operandi of Pre- and Protohistory, which in turn features a large spectrum of – at times contradictory – schools of thought. To this end, different theories from Pre- and Protohistory are selected and introduced. In a final step, these are transferred to two Classical Archaeological case studies. By analyzing libation rituals in Bronze Age and Classical Greece, the applicability of interdisciplinary theories in Classical Studies and any respective prerequisites are examined.

Im Westen nichts Neues? Untersuchungen zur Antikenrezeption in deutschen Karikaturen des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts am Beispiel des Wahren Jacob

To this day, scholars of the reception of classical art and culture have looked almost exclusively upon the so-called ‘high arts’ of painting, sculpting and writing, effectively ignoring more vulgar, popular ways of reception. By virtue of its character as a medium wanting to be understood by everyone, it is a genre like the  simple caricature, however, which offers excellent opportunities to gauge the level of classical education in those ranks of society which did not have access to the academic and artistic training of the bourgeoisie. This book looks at the socialist magazine Der Wahre Jacob in order to examine the degree to which the contents of Wilhelminian classicism were absorbed and adapted by German proletarian counterculture, and hopes to illuminate a long neglected aspect of social conflict in the era of the First World War.

Esther Widmann

Die Archäologie des Haushalts in der kretischen Neupalastzeit: Archäologische und ikonographische Zeugnisse zum alltäglichen Bereich

The study at hand focusses on ‚simple‘ households, which often are being neglected in favor of the great villas and palaces. The great number of household findings show that the majority of the Minoan population did not reside in the villas or palaces, but lived and, as will be shown, also worked in modest housings. The household as a social entity and household activities that were part of everyday life within this entity are being portrayed. This is only possible on the basis of excavated residences as well as installations and findings located within them. The theoretical exposition for research on households in archaeology is followed by the chronologically structured main part. The latter focusses on the Neopalatial Period and further includes findings from the Prepalatial and Old Palatial Periods. Residences of different sizes and from different settlement contexts (palatial, non-palatial, detached, adjacent) are being described and evaluated. Due to the scarcity of relevant source material the part about iconographic evidences, which gives information on households and everyday life, is much shorter. A comprehensive evaluation improves the perspective on the households’ economic system and thus of Minoan society. It becomes apparent that the detailed documentation of household findings is the imperative prerequisite for rewarding research of archaeological households. But even then statements about the social dimension of the respective household, of its size and composition, cannot be made.

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