Thursday, December 7, 2023

Compulsion and Control in Ancient Egypt: Proceedings of the Third Lady Wallis Budge Egyptology Symposium

book cover

How did the Ancient Egyptians maintain control of their state? This book considers this question from a wide variety of angles and across all periods of Egyptian history, from the Old Kingdom to Coptic times. Topics include the controlling function of temples and theology, state borders, scribal administration, visual representation, patronage, and the Egyptian language itself. These different strands are tied together by legal pluralism theory, which argues that a single state can rely on multiple – and at times even contradictory – strategies for upholding what it considers just within the bounds of what is nominally a single jurisdiction. This theoretical approach, while increasingly common in modern postcolonial studies and the history of law, is yet to be deployed in Egyptology. This book therefore aims to fill that gap. The chapters are expanded versions of papers originally presented at the 3rd Lady Wallis Budge Egyptology conference, organised by Christ’s College and held online on 27th–28th August 2020.


Preface – Alexandre Loktionov

Introduction: Pluralisms of Compulsion and Control in Ancient Egypt – Alexandre Loktionov

I. Compulsion and Control in the Temple Sphere

1. The Turin Indictment Papyrus (P. Turin C. 1887): an Enquiry about the Forms of Compulsion in
the Text – Marcella Trapani

2. The Egyptian Temples of Oxyrhynchus and their Personnel Under the Roman Empire – Leah Mascia

II. Compulsion and Control in Religious and Funerary Thought

3. ‘You shall not constrain my bꜢ’. Control through and of the bꜢ.(w)Anne Landborg

4. Ancestors as a Source of Legal Authority – Renata Schiavo

III. Compulsion and Control around Borders

5. Fort-building and Violence as the Mode of Control of the Margins in Late Middle Kingdom Nubia – Adam Fagbore

6. Compulsory Foreign Labour in Late Bronze Age Egypt: Towards Understanding a Forced
Migration-Unfree Labour Nexus – Christian Langer

7. Unwritten Compulsion: Social Integration, Norms and Self-Control at Kurgus in Medieval Nubia – Loretta Kilroe

IV. Compulsion and Control in the Administration of Labour and Human Resources

8. Controlling Workforces at the Palace: Some Perspectives on Administrative Practice at
Kom Medinet Gurob – Fredrik Hagen

9. Bureaucratic Control of New Kingdom Tomb Building Projects – Rune Olsen

V. Compulsion and Control in Text and Image

10. Images of Control and Submission in Old Kingdom Funerary Iconography: The Egyptian Tomb
as a ‘Disciplinary Institution’ – Matthieu Hagenmüller

11. Social Control in Middle Kingdom Egypt: Embodied Experience and Symbolic Violence – Margaret Maitland

12. Human Branding Practices during the New Kingdom: A Form of Control between Metaphor
and Reality – Marta Valerio

VI. Compulsion and Control through Patronage and Unequal Status Relationships

13. Patronage and Protection in Late Pharaonic and Ptolemaic Egypt – Brian Muhs

14. “When Dad says no”: Paternal Authority and Control in the Context of Egyptian Men’s First Marriages – Steffie van Gompel

VII. The Language of Compulsion and Control

15. Words that bind: Earlier Egyptian Language of Compulsion and Control – Sami Uljas

16. How to tell of Compulsion and Control in Demotic: a Prospect from Contextual Narratology – John Tait

17. Perceptions of Liberty in the Coptic Period: Affective Responses to Socio-religious Pressures
in the Western Desert – Victoria Fendel

H 276 x W 203 mm

274 pages

43 figures, 6 tables (colour throughout)

Published Dec 2023

Archaeopress Archaeology


Paperback: 9781803275857

Digital: 9781803275864

DOI 10.32028/9781803275857


La République « gréco-romaine » des lettres : construction des réseaux savants et circulation des savoirs dans l’Empire romain

éd. Anthony ANDURAND et Corinne BONNET


Télécharger la couverture, le sommaire, les comités

Anthony ANDURAND, Corinne BONNET
Une République « gréco-romaine » des lettres ? Les réseaux savants de l’Empire entre savoir et pouvoir [texte intégral]

Lettrés et réseaux savants à la cour d’Hérode [texte intégral]

Jean-Christophe COURTIL
Savoir médical grec et stoïcisme romain : le cas de l’œuvre de Sénèque [texte intégral]



The Standard Language Ideology of the Hebrew and Arabic Grammarians of the ʿAbbasid Period

The Standard Language Ideology of the Hebrew and Arabic Grammarians of the ʿAbbasid Period - cover image
As a discipline, the study of Biblical Hebrew grammar began largely among Arabic-speaking Jews of the Middle Ages, particularly in the ʿAbbasid period (750–1258 CE). Indeed, it has long been acknowledged by scholars that the Hebrew grammatical tradition, in many ways, grew up out of and alongside the Arabic grammatical tradition. Many concepts present in Hebrew grammar have their origins in the writings of Arabic grammarians of the ʿAbbasid period. And yet, as recent linguistic and anthropological work has shown, setting down ‘the grammar’ of a language can be as much an ideological or political activity as an academic one.

In addition to the language itself, speech communities also share beliefs and attitudes about that language—what linguistic anthropologists would term a ‘language ideology’. Language ideology can have a dramatic impact on what forms of the language one regards as acceptable and what sort of rules one imposes on and through their description of the language. Nevertheless, while much work has been done on the interface between Hebrew and Arabic grammar and literature in the Middle Ages, interface of their respective language ideologies has yet to be treated theoretically or systematically.

In the present book, then, we survey six specific characteristics of a ‘standard language ideology’ that appear in both the writings of the Hebrew grammarians who wrote in Judeo-Arabic and the Arabic grammarians during the ʿAbbasid period. Such striking lines of linguistic-ideological similarity suggest that it may not have been only grammatical concepts or literary genres that the medieval Hebrew grammarians inherited from the Arabic grammatical tradition, but a way of thinking about language as well.

Book Series


Benjamin Paul Kantor

Published On





  • English

Print Length

232 pages (xii+220)


Paperback156 x 13 x 234 mm(6.14" x 0.51" x 9.21")
Hardback156 x 15 x 234 mm(6.14" x 0.59" x 9.21")




Le phallus dans l’Antiquité. Imaginaires, pratiques et discours, représentations - The Phallus in Antiquity. Imaginaries, Practices and Discourses, Representations

dir. Sandra Jaeggi-Richoz & Thomas R. Blanton IV

 Télécharger la couverture, le sommaire, les comités

Archimède Hors-série N° 2. 2022

Imago Genitalium. Introduction au numéro spécial "Le phallus dans l'Antiquité" [texte intégral]

Égypte, Levant et Asie Mineure / Egypt, Levant and Asia Minor

Le phallus d'Osiris [texte intégral]

From Bridegroom of Blood to Son-in-Law: Zipporah & Son in Exodus 4 [texte intégral]

Le polyorchidisme, un attribut divin d'origine carienne ? [texte intégral]

Grèce / Greece

Salvatore COSTANZA
The Power of the Phallus: Its Value in Greek Divination [texte intégral]

Le phallus à deux coups ou le "préservatif" du roi Minos [texte intégral]

Reine-Marie BÉRARD, Josipa MANDIĆ, Christian MAZET
La bourse ou la mort ? Les aryballes aidoia en Méditerranée archaïque [texte intégral]

Filles ou garçons ? L’identification sexuée des enfants sur les choés et lécythes aryballisques attiques des Ve et IVe siècles av. J.-C. [texte intégral]

L’enfant qui saisit vivement son zizi. Gestuelle infantile et détection de la lithiase chez les auteurs hippocratiques [texte intégral]

Alexandre G. MITCHELL
Le phallus comme objet et véhicule d’humour dans la peinture de vases attique  [texte intégral]

Italie / Italy

Phallus zoomorphes et animaux ithyphalliques : expression de la liminarité dans la symbolique funéraire étrusque aux Ve s.- IV e s. av. J.-C. [texte intégral]

Quelques considérations sur les fascina (objets, pratiques et interprétations) à la lumière des recherches sur la masculinité romaine [texte intégral]

Apotropaic Humor: The Fresco of Priapus in the House of the Vettii [texte intégral]



Wednesday, December 6, 2023


Greek and Roman writers had a lot to say about their myths. More of it should be accessible online.

Canopos is an experiment in collaborative digital scholarship

a repository for peer-reviewed translations of mythographic texts


Anonymous, On Unbelievable Stories

A mythographic miscellany dating from after the 5th century AD, containing rationalizing and allegorical material.

Translation by Greta Hawes

Available on Scaife Viewer

Heracleitos, On Unbelievable Stories

A collection of 39 rationalizing and allegorical treatments of individual myths, dating to the late 1st or 2nd centuries AD

Translation by Billie Hall, Greta Hawes, Tate Jenetsky, Rosemary Selth, and Aaron Wallis

Read more here

Available on Scaife Viewer, and Topostext

Palaiphatos, On Unbelievable Stories

A methodological description of mythic rationalization and 46 examples of the technique applied to individual myths, dating probably to the 340s or 330s BC

Translation by Hugo Branley, Billie Hall, Greta Hawes, Tate Jenetsky, Liam Maldoni, Daniel Prestipino, and Rosemary Selth

Available on Scaife Viewer

Read more here

Ps-Plutarch, On the Naming of Rivers and Mountains

A work of creative mythography which purports to explain how rivers and mountains got their names, and describes the miraculous stones and plants found in and on them. Dates probably to the 2nd century AD

Translation by Greta Hawes, Sonia Pertsinidis, and Charles Delattre

Available on Scaife Viewer

Canopos is directed by Greta Hawes

We gratefully acknowledge the Center for Hellenic Studies, Perseus, and Topostext in providing digital support and assistance for this project.

Details of reproduction rights appear in the footer of each document

Approaching Jerusalem

Approaching Jerusalem is for everyone, like myself, who has spent time in Jerusalem and left wanting more. This newsletter aims to be a trove of accessible writing about the ancient and living city, including its geographical setting, history, exploration, archaeology and excavation history, architecture, peoples, and more. Articles on this platform aim to be both an extension of the modern quest to understand ancient Jerusalem and a reflection on how the drive to exert control over its past has influenced the city we experience today.

The title, Approaching Jerusalem, is an epistemological encouragement to consider how we aught to think about such a city, as well as a reminder that, no matter our expertise or experience, Jerusalem can never be fully mastered. On the other hand, regardless of our entry point into the study of Jerusalem, a city so rich always has more with which to imbue, captivate, and enliven. There is enough for each of us to find our own rootedness and sense of belonging in such a storied and wonderful place.


Wisdom of Ben Sira

Muraoka, Takamitsu 
A philological commentary on the book of Ben Sira accompanied by a full translation of the Greek text in the Septuagint. Similar in content to the book of Proverbs, and though not canonical, but read and studied by the ancient Jewish community, as shown by a considerable quantity of fragments of its Hebrew original discovered in a storage room of a synagogue in Cairo and among the documents discovered in Qumran caves and the Judaean Desert. All these data as well as two ancient Syriac translations have been fully taken into account.
Item Type:Monograph
Communities & Collections:01 Faculty of Theology > Institute of Religious Studies
Special Collections > Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis
Dewey Decimal Classification:200 Religion
Date:1 November 2023
Deposited On:05 Dec 2023 14:30
Last Modified:05 Dec 2023 14:30
Publisher:Peeters Publishers
Series Name:Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis
Number of Pages:807
Additional Information:9042949147 (ISBN-10)
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Official URL. An embargo period may apply.
Related URLs:

And see all volumes of the series Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis


Open Access Journal: Bibliographie analytique de l’Afrique antique (BAAA)

[First posted in AWOL 4 December 2020, updated 6 December 2023]
ISSN: 1592-1719
Initiée au début des années 1960 sous le nom de Bulletin d’archéologie algérienne, la Bibliographie analytique de l’Afrique antique (BAAA) est un périodique annuel de bibliographie critique des publications internationales concernant l’Afrique du Nord antique, pour la période allant de la protohistoire à l’époque byzantine puis musulmane. 
Les notices, organisées de manière chronologique et thématique, couvrent l’ensemble des champs de l’histoire et de l’archéologie ou des sciences auxiliaires. Des index complets et développés en facilitent la consultation dans la version papier des ouvrages. 
C’est ainsi un outil de travail particulièrement utile et reconnu non seulement par la communauté des spécialistes de l’Afrique du Nord antique, en France, en Europe ainsi que dans les pays du Maghreb, mais aussi par tous les chercheurs s’intéressant à cette thématique.

Most recent volume: 

Bibliographie analytique de l’Afrique antique LII (2018)

La présente chronique fait suite aux bibliographies parues sous les signatures de J. Desanges et S. Lancel, d’abord dans le Bulletin d’Archéologie Algérienne (I, 1962-1965, à III, 1968, pour les publications des années 1961 à 1966), et ensuite en fascicules séparés (de IV, 1970, pour 1967, à XIX, 1989, pour les années 1984 et 1985). Cette entreprise a été poursuivie, à la demande de J. Desanges et de S. Lancel, par Y. Le Bohec, avec la collaboration de J.-M. Lassère, à partir du fasc. XX, ...

Lire la suite
  • Éditeur : Publications de l’École française de Rome
  • Collection : Bibliographie analytique de l’Afrique antique (BAAA) | 52
  • Lieu d’édition : Rome
  • Année d’édition : 2023
  • Publication sur OpenEdition Books : 06 décembre 2023



Tuesday, December 5, 2023


eHammurabi Logo
A digital version of the Law Code of Hammurabi, including cuneiform, transliteration, normalization, and an English translation.

The Law Code of Hammurabi is one of the oldest legal texts from ancient Mesopotamia. The artifact, a basalt stele, is believed to have been created between c. 1792–1750 BCE. It was discovered by Jacques Jean Marie de Morgan's team around 1901 in Susa, or present-day Iran. The name "Hammurabi" belongs to the sixth ruler of the Old Babylonian dynasty. The cuneiform inscription is in the Old Babylonian language, which is a later dialect of ancient Akkadian.

The inscription contains three sections composed of c. 4,150 lines: a prologue, a list of statutes, and an epilogue. The prologue contains c. 300 lines and declares Hammurabi's divine authority over the land. Therein, Hammurabi boasts of his accomplishments and intimacy with Marduk, among other deities. The bulk of the text is said to contain 282 statutes, or individual laws, according to most scholars. The laws deal with various areas of life in Babylon: property, crime, contracts, marriage, family, and commerce. The epilogue contains c. 300 lines and codifies Hammurabi's desire to serve justice throughout the land by means of the statutes noted above.



Opera Latina Adnotata

This repository contains the largest open access and scalable collection of Latin texts, Opera Latina Adnotata (316 files, 6,755,191 tokens, and 411,329 sentences) + related resources to analyze Latin ( 🏋️‍❤️😃

The original Latin texts have been tokenized, sentence split, morphologically, and syntactically annotated using a standoff format (Paula XML), which allows smooth expansion of the corpus via addition of multiple annotation layers.

The repository is organized thus (further details within each directory):

  1. texts contains the texts annotated (look in here if you are just interested in the annotated texts)
  2. original-Latin-files contains the original Perseus Digital Library texts used as base texts in texts
  3. tokenize contains Verbator, the tokenizer and sentence splitter used for the texts in texts (also accessible via a REST API:
  4. abbreviations contains a list of Latin abbreviations used for tokenization
  5. normalization contains files useful for normalization of Latin tokens
  6. guidelines contains documentation for the annotation of Latin (in fieri)
  7. scripts contains scripts used to create the present data
  8. case-study contains a case study documenting standoff annotation for Latin
  9. paula contains the texts in texts in Paula XML 1.1 format
  10. relannis contains the relannis version of the files in paula (
  11. combo contains all the files annotated by the COMBO parser (
  12. annotation-lists contains some lists to document how tokens should be annotated (in fieri).
  13. webanno contains files related to an annotation example in Webanno

The repository is work-in-progress (aiming to add/improve annotations)

World Historical Gazetteer

linking knowledge about the past via place
Project Vision

World Historical Gazetteer (WHG) is providing a collection of content and services that permit world historians, their students, and the general public to do spatial and temporal reasoning and visualization in a data rich environment at global and trans-regional scales.


Version 2 of WHG was released in August 2021. The project launched with a Version 1 in July, 2020. For an overview of what is here, what you can do, and what is in the works, please see the Site Guide and the Tutorials section.

The WHG platform is far from complete. We are actively soliciting contributions of place data, large and small, and we expect to add new features and refine existing ones over time. Please get in touch to discuss prospective data contributions, and with feedback about any aspect of the project.


The World Historical Gazetteer index has been seeded with core place data from several essentially modern sources, to which we have added our first several historical contributions comprising about 60,000 records. Our strategy has been to initially provide broad coverage of modern places, then add historical depth over time via contributions of attestations from historical sources. In time, contributions of "trace" data via our Place Collection feature will reveal a variety of connections between places, illustrated in the simplified figure below by red lines.


Upload and extend your data with geometry and identifiers from Wikidata

Contribute your uploaded data to WHG by linking it to other places in our index

Teach with WHG-focused lesson plans

Create and share your custom collection of places and datasets published in WHG

Integrate WHG data using our application programming interface

Open Access Journal: Studia Orientalia Electronica

[First posted in AWOL 22 October 2015, updated 5 December 2023]

Studia Orientalia Electronica
ISSN: 2323-5209
Welcome to the website of Studia Orientalia Electronica (StOrE)! StOrE is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal publishing original research articles and reviews in all fields of Asian and African studies. It is an offshoot of Studia Orientalia, an internationally recognized publication series (see for further information on Studia Orientalia and the publisher, Finnish Oriental Society). StOrE was established in 2013 to keep up the fine publishing tradition of Studia Orientalia. The new journal publishes high quality articles in a more modern and accessible format.
The first volume (year 2013) of Studia Orientalia Electronica has been published (see Archives section). Furthermore, some articles of back issues of the printed Studia Orientalia are found in the Archives section and more are coming soon. In the Current section you will find the articles of 2014 (vol. 2) of StOrE.
Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal’s section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process.

Current Issue

Studia Orientalia Electronica Special Issue: Mesopotamian Identities in the Last Centuries of Cuneiform Writing
Vol. 11 No. 2 (2023)

Guest editors: Sebastian Fink & Saana Svärd


Monday, December 4, 2023

Open Access Journal: Hieratic Studies Online (HSO)

 [First posted in AWOL 2 November 2021, updated 4 December 2023]

Hieratic Studies Online (HSO)

The Hieratic Studies Online (HSO) is a peer-reviewed, academic journal dedicated to presenting research on all aspects of hieratic and cursive hieroglyphs, for example:
  • writing materials and techniques
  • the system of the Ancient Egyptian cursive scripts
  • development and interconnections between cursive and monumental scripts
  • palaeography of signs from single scribes, texts, periods, or regions
  • any sources of handwritings and hieratic inscriptions
  • text editions
  • new readings
  • manufacturing of and copying features
  • layout, extratextual notes, corrections, additions, marginalia
HSO is open-access: All articles in this journal can be viewed and downloaded free-of-charge at the Gutenberg Open (University Bibliography Open Access Publications) platform.
HSO has an open format: Accepted papers will be published as soon as possible.  We recommend that you use the CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 DE license (if necessary, however, it is possible to use other license formats). There is no defined publication schedule or deadlines. With support of the authors or editors substantial monographs or proceedings may also be integrated in the publication process.
HSO offers scholars the opportunity to include a large number of colour images where appropriate to the article.
HSO is edited by Svenja A. Gülden, Kyra van der Moezel and Ursula Verhoeven from the project „Altägyptische Kursivschriften“ at the Mainz academy of Sciences and Literature.

1 | 2016

Ein „nouveau Möller“? Grenzen und Möglichkeiten. Ein working paper zum gleichnamigen Vortrag

Svenja A. Gülden

Though more than 100 years old Möller’s Hieratische Paläographie still is the standard reference work for palaeographic questions. Parts of this palaeography could be complemented and replaced by studies concentrating on specific times spans or sources, but a systematic study of the hieratic script covering all time spans of Egyptian history is– for many reasons – still missing. ‚Ein „nouveau Möller“? Grenzen und Möglichkeiten’ was the title of a paper given at the conference „Ägyptologische ,Binsen‘-Weisheiten“ I, at Mainz in 2011 – this working paper sums up the different aspects discussed in that paper.

2 | 2021

Hieratische Aktenvermerke

Johannes Jüngling

Although a significant number of the hieratic archival documents bear additional auxiliary signs or sign groups, a systematical study of these hieratic check marks is still missing. The present paper aims to close this gap by providing an overview of the already known hieratic check marks, covering the period between the 5th and 25th dynasties. Those marks are examined with respect to their graphic, phonological, morphological, and semantic features, including a short excursus on hieratic inscriptions on the Amarna tablets. At the end, a table with facsimile samples of the check marks is given.

3 | 2022

Standardisierung und Variation. Eine Analyse zur Graphetik der Zeichenkategorie [VOGEL] in den hieratischen Papyri Berlin P. 3022–5

Tabitha Kraus

This publication aims to analyse the multitude von bird graphemes existent in the hieratic script. Using four 12th dynasty papyri as source material, these graphemes are described and compared to the underlying birds as well as their corresponding hieroglyphs. Furthermore, the function of the different sign forms of the graphemes and their influence on the reading process will be discussed. Eight basic forms of bird graphemes are determined, which can be recognized as different graphemes using additive elements.

4 | 2022

Administrative Hieratic from dynasties 19 and 20 : case studies on selected groups of ostraca with necropolis administration

Kyra van der Moezel

The publication, linked to the data in the online database AKU-PAL, discusses various aspects of ostraca with administrative hieratic script from Ramesside times. The genre of administrative writing is considered and the designation “necropolis journal” is rejected in favor of a more inclusive reference to necropolis administration. The economy of the writing process is analyzed especially in the form of economizing marks and practices of abbreviation. Palaeographic peculiarities in the composition of hieratograms are reviewed as well as text planning and hints at the cognitive writing process. Finally, the handwritings of three scribes are palaeographically reviewed. These aspects are embedded in an overall review of the workflow of scribes in Deir el-Medina during dynasties 19 and 20 and the question how they set up documents and wrote down their administration.

5 | 2023

Optical character recognition applied to hieratic. Sign identification and broad analysis

Julius A. Tabin

Despite modern advances in digital paleographic techniques, hieratic has largely eluded the thorough application of technological methods for automatic sign recognition. To remedy this, this article presents two new hieratic facsimiles (of the Shipwrecked Sailor and part of the Eloquent Peasant), a novel data set of 13,134 individual hieratic signs, and an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) based program developed to analyze them using an Image Deformation Model. This program is highly accurate and various applications are presented, from single character identification to large-scale sign comparisons. This article provides an important building block in the study of hieratic digital paleography, allowing far more signs to be compared at once than ever before, and offers a free, open-source tool and data set.

Open Access Journal: Akropolis: Journal of Hellenic Studies

 [First posted in AWOL 27 June 2018, updated 4 December 2023]

Akropolis: Journal of Hellenic Studies
ISSN: 2536-572X (print)
ISSN: 2536-5738 (online)
Akropolis: Journal of Hellenic Studies is an international peer-reviewed, open access scholarly journal, devoted to the study of Hellenic culture and civilization from antiquity to the present, featuring high-quality research articles and book reviews in all areas of Hellenic studies: philosophy, religion, archaeology, history, law, politics, literature, philology, art.
High quality contributions – regardless of tradition, school of thought or disciplinary background – are welcome. The editorial board equally values disciplinary and interdisciplinary studies. The highest editorial standard is ensured by the international character and disciplinary expertise of the editorial board.
Akropolis is published annually by the Center for Hellenic Studies, based in Podgorica, Montenegro.
  • Année : 2021
  • Volume : 5
  • Numéro :1
Liste des articles
Le point de vue du métropolite Amfilohije sur saint Grégoire Palamas et l'orthodoxie : un retour au palamisme
Les noms des familles œcuméniques par rapport à l'Amphilochie Radio: Јустин Поповић
L'autorité des chanoines à la naissance et à la renaissance du Patriarcat russe : saint Mélèce Pigas au concile de Constantinople en 1593 et ​​saint Hilarion Troïtski au concile de Moscou en 1917
Pavlova идеја « новог човјека » и трансхуманизам
La langue comme moyen de communication avec Dieu
Valorisation des biens : le développement de la commensurabilité dans la Grèce archaïque


See AWOL's full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studi