Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Open Access Journal: Practitioners' Voices in Classical Reception Studies

[First posted in AWOL 1 June 2010. Updated 26 March 2019]

Practitioners' Voices in Classical Reception Studies
ISSN: 1756-5049
PVCRS is very much a companion publication to our ejournal New Voices in Classical Reception Studies and our Eseminar Archive. All add to the range of resources that are made freely available on the Open University Reception of Classical Texts Research Project website. New Voices provides a refereed platform for newer researchers to publish their work. The Eseminar Archive makes available the records of the annual seminar that discusses all aspects of classical reception. Practitioners' Voices is a response to the growing awareness that Classical Reception research has to recognise the full range of processes that shape the impact of classical material in new contexts. Its aim is to provide a Forum in which theatre directors, designers, dramaturgs, actors, poets, translators, and all involved in the creative practices that are so crucial to classical receptions can discuss the relationship between their work and the classical texts, themes and contexts on which they draw.
We hope that the Forum will also lead to further dialogue between creative practitioners and critics and academics (who are after all also practitioners).


Issue 8 (2017)



Ben Ferris

Ben Ferris is a film writer/director whose films have screened at festivals throughout the world (in Paris, Athens, New York, Tokyo, Karlovy Vary, Zagreb, Sarajevo, Skopje, Singapore, Sydney). His short film The Kitchen (2003) won the Grand Prix at the Akira Kurosawa Memorial Short Film Festival in Tokyo in 2005, and his short film Ascension (2004) won the Grand Prix at the 4th One Take Film Festival in Croatia in 2004.
His debut feature film Penelope, an Australian-Croatian co-production, screened in National Competition at the 56th Pula Film Festival in Croatia in 2009, and won a Van Gogh Award for Best Fantasy Film at the Amsterdam Film Festival in 2010. His second feature film, 57 Lawson (2016), captures daily life in a social housing building in Redfern, under the shadow of impending development. Ben is currently the Artistic Director of the Sydney Film School which he co-founded in 2004. He was the curator of the Sydney Cinémathèque in 2015, and his writings on cinema have been published worldwide in both French and English.
This interview with Leanne Glass was recorded via Skype on 13th January 2016.

Issue 9 (2018)

Penny Boreham, with Prodromos Tsinikoris, Giles Lewin, and Anastasia Bakogianni

Penny Boreham has been working as a radio producer and broadcaster for the last 30 years. She was on staff with the BBC until 2003 but since then has worked independently for the BBC, the child rights agency ‘Child to Child’, The Open University and numerous other organisations. Her mother named her Penelope because of her love of ‘the Odyssey’ and then read her the Greek myths as a young child. She has loved them ever since. 
Prodromos Tsinikoris was born in Wuppertal, Germany. Today he lives in Athens. He is the co-artistic director of the Experimental Stage-I of the National Theatre and works as a dramaturg, performer and theatre director. 
Giles Lewin is a British violinist and music composer, but also a vocalist who can play the fiddle, vielle, rebec, gittern, shawms, recorder, mandolin, pipe and tabor. He is particularly interested in old musical instruments and styles.
Penny, Prodromos and Giles worked together on a radio programme for the BBC World Service entitled Telling Tales: The Odyssey, which juxtaposed the stories of refugees on the Greek island of Lesvos with Homer's OdysseyAnastasia Bakogianni was academic consultant on the programme; she conducted the following interviews with Penny, Prodromos and Giles for Practitioners' Voices in Classical Reception Studies.

Past Issues

Montage of 4 photographs from a 2008 production of Cloudcuckooland

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Open Access Journal: Journal of Hellenistic Pottery and Material Culture

Journal of Hellenistic Pottery and Material Culture
ISSN: 2399-1844 (Print) 
ISSN: 2399-1852 (online) 

The Journal of Hellenistic Pottery and Material Culture - JHP - was launched 2016 in Berlin, Germany, by Renate Rosenthal-Heginbottom, Patricia Kögler and Wolf Rudolph - specialists working in the field of Hellenistic material culture.
JHP is an independent learned journal dedicated to the research of ceramics and objects of daily use of the Hellenistic period in the Mediterranean region and beyond. It aims at bringing together archaeologists, historians, philologists, numismatists and scholars of related disciplines engaged in the research of the Hellenistic heritage.
JHP wants to be a forum for discussion and circulation of information on the everyday culture of the Hellenistic period which to date is still a rather neglected field of study. To fill this academic void the editors strive for a speedy and non-bureaucratic publication and distribution of current research and recent discoveries combined with a high quality standard. The journal appears annually in print and as a free online downloadable PDF.
Volume 3
ARTICLES
Notes on a Hellenistic Milk Pail – by Yannis Chairetakis
Chasing Arsinoe (Polis Chrysochous, Cyprus): A Sealed Early Hellenistic Cistern and Its Ceramic Assemblage – by Brandon R. Olson, Tina Najbjerb & R. Scott Moore
Hasmonean Jerusalem in the Light of Archaeology – Notes on Urban Topography – by Hillel Geva
A Phoenician / Hellenistic Sanctuary at Horbat Turit (Kh. et-Tantur) – by Walid Atrash, Gabriel Mazor & Hanaa Aboud with contributions by Adi Erlich & Gerald Finkielsztejn
Schmuck aus dem Reich der Nabatäer – hellenistische Traditionen in frührömischer Zeit – by Renate Rosenthal-Heginbottom
ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS AND PROJECT
Pyla-Koutsopetria Archaeological Project: Excavations at Pyla-Vigla in 2018 – by Thomas Landvatter, Brandon R. Olson, David S. Reese, Justin Stephens & R. Scott Moore
Bookmark: Ancient Gems, Finger Rings and Seal Boxes from Caesarea Maritima. The Hendler Collection – by Shua Amorai-Stark & Malka Herskovitz
BOOK REVIEWS
Nina Fenn, Späthellenistische und frühkaiserzeitliche Keramik aus Priene. Untersuchungen zu Herkunft und Produktion – by Susanne Zabehlicky-Scheffenegger
Raphael Greenberg, Oren Tal & Tawfiq Da῾adli, Bet Yerah III. Hellenistic Philoteria and Islamic al- Ṣinnabra. The 1933–1986 and 2007–2013 Excavations – bY Gabriel Mazor
Mohamed Kenawi & Giorgia Marchiori, Unearthing Alexandria’s archaeology: The Italian Contribution – by Carlo De Mitri
Volume 2
Table of Contents Articles:
• Nadia Aleotti, Rhodian Amphoras from Butrint (Albania): Dating, Contexts and Trade
• Donald T. Ariel, Imported Hellenistic Stamped Amphora Handles and Fragments from the North Sinai Survey
• Ofra Guri-Rimon, Stone Ossuaries in the Hecht Museum Collection and the Issue of Ossuaries Use for Burial
• Gabriel Mazor & Walid Atrash, Nysa-Scythopolis: The Hellenistic Polis
• Hélène Machline & Yuval Gadot, Wading Through Jerusalem’s Garbage: Chronology, Function, and Formation Process of the Pottery Assemblages of the City’s Early Roman Landfill
• Kyriakos Savvopoulos, Two Hadra Hydriae in the Colection of the Patriarchal Sacristy in Alexandria
• Wolf Rudolph & Michalis Fotiadis, Neapolis Scythica – Simferopol – Test Excavations 1993
Archaeological News and Projects:
• »Dig for a Day« with the Archaeological Seminars Institute
Reviews:
• John Lund, A Study of the Circulation of Ceramics in Cyprus from the 3rd Century BC to the 3rd Century AD (by Brandon R. Olson)
• Gloria London, Ancient Cookware from the Levant. An Ethnoarchaeological Perspective (by John Tidmarsh)
• Michela Spataro & Alexandra Villing (eds.), Ceramics, Cuisine and Culture: The Archaeology and Sience of Kitchen Pottery in the Ancient Mediterranean World (by Renate Rosenthal-Heginbottom)
• James C. R. Gill, Dakhleh Oasis and the Western Desert of Egypt under the Ptolemies (by Andrea M. Berlin)
• Anna Gamberini, Ceramiche fini ellenistiche da Phoinike. Forme, produzioni, commerce (by Carlo De Mitri)
• Maja Mise, Gnathia and Related Hellenistic Ware on the East Adriatic Coast (by Patricia Kögler)
• Jens-Arne Dickmann & Alexander Heinemann (eds.), Vom Trinken und Bechern. Das antike Gelage im Umbruch (by Stella Drougou)

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Institutional subscribers: by downloading this eBook you are agreeing to abide by the subscription licence issued to The Institution. Contact your library for further details. If you encounter any issues with your download please contact info@archaeopress.com
Volume 1
Table of Contents:
A Fill from a Potter’s Dump at Morgantina – by Shelley Stone
Trade in Pottery within the Lower Adriatic in the 2nd century BCE – by Carlo De Mitri
Hellenistic Ash Containers from Phoinike (Albania) – by Nadia Aleotti
Pottery Production in Hellenistic Chalkis, Euboea. Preliminary Notes – by Yannis Chairetakis
A Terracotta Figurine of a War Elephant and Other Finds from a Grave at Thessaloniki – by Eleni Lambrothanassi & Annareta Touloumtzidou
Moldmade Bowls from Straton’s Tower (Caesarea Maritima) – by Renate Rosenthal-Heginbottom
Greco-Roman Jewellery from the Necropolis of Qasrawet (Sinai) – by Renate Rosenthal-Heginbottom

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS AND PROJECTS
Panathenaic Amphorae of Hellenistic and Roman Times – by Martin Streicher

BOOK REVIEWS
Shelley C. Stone, Morgantina Studies 6. The Hellenistic and Roman Fine Wares – by Peter J. Stone
Pia Guldager Bilde & Mark L. Lawall (eds.), Pottery, Peoples and Places, BSS 16 – by Kathleen Warner Slane
Susan I. Rotroff, Hellenistic Pottery. The Plain Wares, Agora 33 – by Patricia Kögler

Taymāʾ I: Archaeological Exploration, Palaeoenvironment, Cultural Contacts

Taymāʾ I: Archaeological Exploration, Palaeoenvironment, Cultural Contacts
edited by Arnulf Hausleiter, Ricardo Eichmann, Muhammad al-Najem. Hardback; 210x297mm; xii+268 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (66 plates in colour). 499 2018 Taymāʾ: Multidisciplinary Series on the Results of the Saudi-German Archaeological Project 1. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789690439. Epublication ISBN 9781789690446. 
Book contents page
Archaeological investigations in the north-western part of the Arabian Peninsula has increased during the last 15 years. One of the major sites in the region is the ancient oasis of Taymāʾ, known as a commercial hub on the so-called Incense Road connecting South Arabia with the Eastern Mediterranean. In the context of this new research a multidisciplinary project by the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage (SCTH) and the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) has been investigating the archaeology and ancient environment of Taymāʾ since 2004. A major aim of this project was the development of new perspectives of the site and the region, characterised by elaborating the local socio-cultural and economic contexts. So far, Taymāʾ has been known mainly through exogenous sources.

The present volume is the first of the publication series of the Saudi-German archaeological project and focuses on three fundamental aspects of research at Taymāʾ: the current archaeological exploration of the oasis is contextualised with previous and ongoing research within the region, while at the same time offering a first overview of the settlement history of the site, which may have started as early as more than 6000 years ago. New information on the palaeoenvironment has been provided by multiproxy- analysis of sediments from a palaeolake immediately north of the settlement. The results indicate an Early Holocene humid period in the region that is shorter than the so-called African Humid Period. The abrupt aridification at around 8 ka BP, known from other regions in the Near East, is also attested in north-western Arabia. The reconstruction of the past vegetation of the site and its surroundings demonstrates that oasis cultivation at Taymāʾ started during the 5th millennium BCE with grapes and figs, rather than with the date palm. According to hydrological investigations on water resources, groundwater aquifers provided the main source of local water supply. These were exploited through wells, some of which have been identified in the area of the ancient oasis. Finally, since the time of early travellers to Northwest Arabia evidence of cultural contacts has been observed in the records from the site, which had been occupied by the last Babylonian king, Nabonidus (556–539 BCE) for ten years. A historical-archaeological essay on Egypt and Arabia as well as a study on the ambiguous relationship between Assyria and Arabia – characterised by conflict and commerce – shed new light on the foreign relations of ancient Taymāʾ.

About the Editors
ARNULF HAUSLEITER is researcher at the DAI’s Orient Department for the Taymāʾ project, funded by the German Research foundation (DFG). He has been field director of the excavations at Taymāʾ since 2004 and has co-directed the project with Ricardo Eichmann.

RICARDO EICHMANN is director of the Orient Department at the German Archaeological Institute in Berlin. He is the head of the German component of the Taymāʾ project and has co-directed it with Arnulf Hausleiter.

MUHAMMAD AL-NAJEM is head of the Antiquities Office of the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage (SCTH) and director of the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography at Taymāʾ, Province of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.
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Open Access users: by downloading this eBook you are agreeing to our standard terms and conditions available here.
Institutional subscribers: by downloading this eBook you are agreeing to abide by the subscription licence issued to The Institution. Contact your library for further details. If you encounter any issues with your download please contact info@archaeopress.com

Open Access Journal: Aestimatio: Critical Reviews in the History of Science

[First posted in AWOL 15 October 2009. Most recently updated 24 March 2019]

Aestimatio: Critical Reviews in the History of Science
ISSN: 1549–4497 (online)
ISSN: 1549–4470 (print) 
Aestimatio provides critical, timely assessments of books published in the history of what was called science from antiquity up to the early modern period in cultures ranging from Spain to India, and from Africa to northern Europe. The aim is to allow reviewers the opportunity to engage critically both the results of research in the history of science and how these results are obtained.
Robert HannahThe Inscriptions of the Antikythera Mechanism by AMRG1-9
Eileen ReevesHermes and the Telescope: In the Crucible of Galileo’€™s Life-World by Paolo Palmieri10-18
Glen Van BrummelenEssays on Medieval Computational Astronomy by José Chabás and Bernard R. Goldstein19-25
Fernando Q. GouvêaResearch in the History and Philosophy of Mathematics: The CHSPM 2014 Annual Meeting in St. Catherine’s, Ontario by Maria Zack and Elaine Landry edd.26-29
Richard LorchIslamic Astronomy and Geography by David A. King30-31
Roger BeckRecherches Mithriaques. Quarante ans de questions et d’€™investigations by Robert Turcan32-36
Matjaž VeselBefore Copernicus and Copernicus37-79
Harry HineMetaphorical Coherence: Studies in Seneca’s Epistulae Morales by Aron Sjöblad80-84
Joshua J. ReynoldsDivination and Human Nature: A Cognitive History of Intuition in Classical Antiquity by Peter T. Struck85-92

Online Exhibition: Life Among Ruins: Greece & Turkey Between Past and Present

Life Among Ruins: Greece & Turkey Between Past and Present
The exhibition "Life among ruins" explores the relationship of people of different social and ethnic groups and from different periods (Byzantine, Ottoman and Early Modern) in the Eastern Mediterranean with ruined remains of an earlier past. It investigates the impact of the past and its ancient ruins on people's lives, dreams and ideals in later periods.
The exhibition is divided in two parts:
A photographic exhibition, featuring photos of the 1930’s to 1950’s from excavations of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ascsa) in the Athenian Agora, is hosted at the Allard Pierson Museum at Amsterdam (nl) between 21.10.2011 and 29.01.2012.
An online exhibition featuring drawings, sketches and maps of European travellers, who visited the Eastern Mediterranean between the 17th and 19th centuries. These illustrations come from printed books and maps of the 'Bijzondere Collecties' of the University of Amsterdam (nl). These images provide invaluable information on the antiquities themselves as well as on daily life in pre-modern Greece and Turkey.

introduction
the profile of the travellers
from a dutch point of view
the power of monuments
idealized landscapes
in search of antiquities
everyday life among ruins
in the service of the divine
athens: a place or an ideal?
ancient vs. contemporary
acknowledgements
selected bibliography
catalogue
links and resources travellers
 

Film: Greek Papyri: The Rediscovery of the Ancient World

Greek Papyri: The Rediscovery of the Ancient World
Film about Greek Papyri from 1971. Script, direction, editing by Mirek Dohnal. With W. E. H. Cockle, D. M. Dixon, M. S. Drower, W. B. Emery, A. H. Griffiths, E. W. Handley, M. K. Haslam, A. A. Long, O. Skutsch, Susan Stephens, D. Thomas, E. G. Turner. University College London, Slade Film Unit. BFI

website: https://www.bfi.org.uk/films-tv-peopl...

 'Eric Gardner Turner (1911-1983)', Proceedings of the British Academy 73 (1987), p. 697: “1971 reached a high point . . . in May came the première of Mirek Dohnal’s film Greek Papyri (Turner had suggested the subject to the head of the Slade Film Unit; he and his pupils and colleagues starred, with Zauberflöte in the background, and many hours of patient labour; the film won a silver medal at the Venice Festival)."

Friday, March 22, 2019

Select Publications by Red Sea Institute Personnel

Select Publications by Red Sea Institute Personnel
The institute was founded in the fall of 2014 and chartered in the city of Lansing in the state of Michigan, USA as a private    non-profit organization.
We are a 501 (c) (3) non-profit charity corporation as registered with the United States Internal Revenue Service.
Donations are tax deductible.

Our purpose is to promote the scientific inquiry of the Red Sea and surrounding areas-- focusing on the subjects of anthropology, archaeology, ethnography, and history--to further our knowledge of the zone and its peoples, to bring into better understanding the intercourse between Africa and Southwestern Asia from the earliest times into the present, and to provide opportunities for research. 

Our goal is to increase mankind’s knowledge of Red Sea maritime activities of the past and present. 

Our intent is to create a better understanding of the dynamics of intercultural maritime connections and exchange, the involved ship-building and engineering technologies, maritime exploitation strategies of coastal peoples and their environmental adaptability to arid coastal zones, as well as maritime migration from the prehistoric period into the modern era.


Between Castrum and Medina: A Preliminary Note on Spatial Organisation and Urban Development in Medieval Aqaba.
By Kristoffer Damgaard

The results of archaeological field work conducted between the 23rd of January and the 6th of March 2008 at the Early Islamic site of Aylah, located in Aqaba in southern Jordan. The excavations were part of a larger international scientific venture known as the Islamic Aqaba Project (henceforth IAP), which was directed by Prof. Dr. Johnny De Meulemeester (University of Gent), and included an international staff from Belgium, France, Spain, Canada, Jordan and Denmark. The project grew out of the Belgian-British and later Belgian-French Aqaba Castle Project (ACP), whose groundbreaking work revealed that the castle site, and indeed Aqaba in general, had far more complex patterns of occupation than hitherto imagined, and that a reevaluation of the area’s settlement history was crucial. In order to establish a more comprehensive occupational framework, steps were taken to expand the scope of archaeological investigation to include the Early Islamic site of Aylah as well. These are the results of the first season of field work conducted here.
between_castrum_and_medina.pdf
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A Preliminary Report on a Coastal and Underwater Survey in the Area of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
By Ralph K. Pedersen

In March 2012, Philipps-Universität Marburg conducted a 12-day survey along a section of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia reaching from Rabigh in the north to al-Shoaiba in the south. As the beginning of a five-year archaeological project, with the author as principal investigator, this preliminary venture sought to define the logistical situation and to discover any sites of archaeological importance that may exist within the zone. The survey included the search for and the examination of harbor sites, as well as shipwrecks. Sites of antiquity and the Early Islamic period were of particular interest. The results of the survey included the discovery of a harbor and a shipwreck of the late third or the fourth century that contained Roman amphoras, among other objects. This project was created by institute vice president Dr. Rupert Brandmeier.
pedersen_a_preliminary_report_on_a__coastal_and_underwater_survey_in_the_area_of_jeddah,_saudi_arabia.pdf
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The Byzantine-Aksumite Period Shipwreck at Black Assarca Island, Eritrea.
By Ralph K. Pedersen

In 1997, the author conducted an excavation of a shipwreck of late antiquity off a desert island in the southern Red Sea. The wreck carried a cargo of amphoras of three types, all of the kind now called "Aqaba ware". The wreck is the oldest yet excavated in the Red Sea and has yielded new insights into seafaring and trade of the period.
pedersen_the_byzantine-aksumite_period_shipwreck_at_black_assarca_island,_eritrea.pdf
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Under the Erythraean Sea: An Ancient Shipwreck in Eritrea.
By Ralph K. Pedersen

An article from the INA Quarterly about the shipwreck at Black Assarca Island.
pedersen_under_the_erythraean_sea_an_ancient_shipwreck_in_eritrea_inaq.pdf
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A Palestinian Red Sea Port on the Egyptian Road to Arabia: Early Islamic Aqaba and its Many Hinterlands. 
By Kristoffer Damgaard

This article argues that many forms of hinterland exist, and that it is possible to formulate an analytical methodology based on tiered levels. Examples could be 'political', in the sense of adminstrative affiliation and/or subordinance to centres of political power, economic, in regard to a site's position within relevant economic networks; or ethnoconceptual, that is pertaining to the perceived identities of a locality's occupants.
a_palestinian_red_sea_port_on_the_egyptian_road_to_arabia.pdf
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Finding Fatimid Jordan: A Reinterpretation of Aylah's 'Fatimid Residence'.
By Kristoffer Damgaard

Fatimid rule in Bilad al-Sham is relatively well understood in regard to major events at important socio-political centres, however, ordinary life in its more peripheral parts remains poorly documented and only superficially examined. Southern Jordan, here defined as the area between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, is one such region. In the 10th century CE this area was known as al-Sharat. While military control over this area often depended on political circumstances elsewhere, it remained important as both a transit corridor between the Fatimid heartland in Egypt and the major urban centres of Syria-Palestine (e.g. Damascus, Ramlah or Jerusalem), but also as a productive agricultural region.3 Understanding the history of this region is thus highly desirable, as it on one hand will help illuminate the impact of Fatimid hegemony on local communities and, on the other, may assist in explaining the dynamics between Fatimid, Saljuq, Frankish and local political elites. Regrettably, relevant historical sources for Fatimid South Jordan prior to the first Crusader incursions around 1100 CE are scant, and this has led scholarship to perceive the region as culturally and economically secondary to Egypt and Palestine.
finding_fatimid_jordan_a_reinterpretation_of_aylahs_fatimid_residence.pdf
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Nabataean Seafaring and  the Search for Shipwrecks in the Red Sea
Ralph K. Pedersen and Rupert A. Brandmeier
The Second Conference on Nabataean Culture, Provo, Utah, USA, May 2015
Published in: Studies on the Nabataean Culture II. Nabil I Khairy, editor.
​Published by the Deanship of Scientific Research, The University of Jordan-Amman (2016), pp. 11-24.

Abstract: Seafaring by the Nabataeans is virtually an archaeological unknown: Indeed, in the corpus of Nabataean studies the issue is not widely addressed. The inhabitants of what is now northwestern Saudi Arabia and southern Jordan are mostly known for their rock-carved buildings and tombs, at least in popular venues. Ancient authors noted, however, that Nabataeans plied the waters of the Red Sea as traders or pirates, maintaining their major port at Leuke Kome, whose location remains undiscovered. Several harbors containing Nabataean aspects have been located along the Saudi coast through archaeological investigation, yet the study of the maritime aspects and accomplishments of the Nabataeans remains in its infancy. Nautical Archaeology in the Red Sea is also in its early stages, but research has begun to reveal the ships of antiquity and the cargoes they carried. This paper outlines the archaeological researches of shipwrecks in the Red Sea, and examines the potential of finding the remains of Nabataean sea craft on the sea lanes reaching from Aqaba to points along the Red Sea littorals.  
nabataean_seafaring_and_the_search_for_s.pdf
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 Echoes of Nabataean Seafaring
Ralph K .Pedersen
The Ancient Near East Today
February 2018
Vol. VI, no. 2.

http://www.asor.org/anetoday/2018/02/Echoes-Nabataean-Seafaring 

When one thinks of the Nabataeans, the desert comes to mind, with wind-blown sands, the red rock-cut architecture of their capital of Petra, and trade routes carrying incense from Arabia to the Mediterranean. There is, however, another aspect of the Nabataeans, one that is only now coming into focus: Seafaring.
The land of the Nabataeans not only included the Jordanian desert but the coast of the Red Sea, reaching southward from Aqaba and down into the northwestern coast of what is now Saudi Arabia. These coasts, mostly barren but containing harbors and access to water, were links to inland trade routes and formed the maritime nexus between Nabataea and the greater world.