Saturday, March 28, 2020

Open Access Journal: Electryone - `Hλεκτρυώνη

[First posted in AWOL 28 January 2014, updated 18 January 2020]

Electryone - `Hλεκτρυώνη
ISSN: 2241-4061

Electryone is an English-language, peer reviewed online journal devoted to ancient historical and philological issues covering the period between the 2nd and 1st millennia BC  and the Roman period A.D.  Electryone welcomes articles between 4,000 and 8.000 words, shorter notes, responses, etc. up to 2,500 words, and book reviews. It also welcomes presentations of new publications, announcements for conferences and information about research programs.

Electryone focuses on the Mediterranean region and on matters referring to interactions of the Mediterranean with neighboring areas, but presents an international forum of research, innovative interpretations, critical reviews, analyses of ancient text sources, comparative studies, mythological issues, archive research reports, interaction of ancient history with topography and archaeology, and applied new technologies on historical and classical studies.
Electryone covers the full range of classical studies (i.e. 2nd millennium to late Rome) but is particularly interested in classical antiquity and its relationship to other cultures.
Most recent issue:

Volume 6, Issue1
Asymmetries in sculptured heads of ancient greek intellectuals
Evi Sarantea
Volume 6, Issue 1
 | pp.
Some sculptured heads of ancient Greek intellectuals, preserved today in Roman copies, are portrayed with asymmetries (dissimilarities between the two sides) and are of special interest. Dissimilarities usually involve the size, the shape, or the positioning of the eyes. Some slight deformation of the left side of the face is noticeable. These asymmetries occur in a small percentage of the Roman copies, and it is thought by the author that they are deliberate and intentional. They fall within a particular manner of rendering of the figures which runs through the centuries-long Greek tradition of portraiture from the Archaic period to the Byzantine era. The sculptors of the Roman age produced copies of the original heads of distinguished ancient Greek intellectuals, differentiating their appearance slightly and designing them with calculated asymmetries. In this way they drew attention to the superiority of these figures to ordinary people, or a sense of awe felt towards these spiritual benefactors of mankind. Certain of the differences between the right and left side of the heads are possibly associated with Dualism.

“Their Head Full of Fragments”: Newfoundland Author Al Pittman’s West Moon, Monuments, Fragments, and Ruins
Stephanie McKenzie Memorial University
Volume 6, Issue 1
 | pp.
This paper is written in a narrative style to enhance points made about different cultural stories. It compares Newfoundland author Al Pittman’s play, West Moon, with ancient monuments in Greece in order to underscore how important it is for different cultures to understand each other’s monuments and ruins. While there are no ancient ruins in Newfoundland comparable to those in Greece, the ruins spoken of in West Moon (the mostly deserted traditional outports, or fishing villages) carry an importance similarity to ancient Greek monuments. They speak of traditions, a connection between past and present, and cultural ways, and they ultimately make one aware of the importance of a culture. The paper considers how some cultures have oral “ruins” as much as oral continuance, the latter based on the passing down of stories, and how both oral and written monuments are equally important. Inevitably, this paper turns briefly to a consideration of today’s refugee crises and posits that the recognizing of cultural continuance and remnants of monuments (carried with people through memory and narrative) might help break down the hopeless divides between “us” and “them.”
Socrates – a Philosophy of Mission?
Matúš Porubjak Department of Philosophy and Applied Philosophy, University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Slovakia
Volume 6, Issue 1
 | pp.
This philosophical essay aims to return to the Socratic problem, ask it anew, and make an attempt to find its possible solution. In the introduction, the author briefly discusses the genesis of the Socratic problem and the basic methodological problems we encounter when dealing with it. Further on, it defines five basic sources of information about Socrates on which the interpretation tradition is based. Then the author outlines two key features of Socrates’ personality, aligned with the vast majority of sources: (1) Socrates’ belief that he has no theoretical knowledge; (2) Socrates’ predilection towards practical questions, and the practical dimension of his activity. In conclusion, the author expresses his belief that it is just this practical dimension of philosophy that has been in the ‘blind spot’ of the modern study of Socrates which paid too much attention to the search for his doctrine. The history of philosophy, however, does not only have to be the history of doctrines, but can also be the history of reflected life practices which inspire followers in their own practices while reflecting on them. The author therefore proposes to understand the historical Socrates as the paradigmatic figure of practical philosophy.
The Myth of Ovid’s Exile
Michael Fontaine Cornell University
Volume 6, Issue 1
 | pp.
Ovid was not exiled; the evidence is massively against it. This is not a new idea, but it is a deeply unpopular, even heretical one. In this paper, I suggest reasons why scholars resist it, and I plead for a new understanding of what the “exile” poetry is.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

PAIXUE: Classicising Learning in Medieval Imperial Systems: Cross-cultural Approaches to Byzantine Paideia and Tang/Song Xue

PAIXUE: Classicising Learning in Medieval Imperial Systems: Cross-cultural Approaches to Byzantine Paideia and Tang/Song Xue

n the medieval Eurasian geopolitical space, Byzantium and China stand out as two centralised imperial orders that drew on seemingly unbroken, in fact purposely constructed, traditions of classicising learning.  With generous support from the European Research Council (ERC), the PAIXUE project examines in tandem, with equal focus on structural parallels and divergences, the conscious revival and subsequent dialectics of classicising learning in middle and later Byzantium (c.800–1350) and Tang/Song China (618–1279). Initially tied into aristocratic culture, it became a tool by which the imperial state sought to monopolise prestige and access to power so as to effectively channel the activities of newly emerging burgeoning ‘middling’ strata into the service of empire. As time progressed, it was also the basis upon which these new elites constructed novel forms of subjectivity that claimed authority and agency increasingly independent of the imperial state.

Mi Fu
Seal of Mi Fu (1051–1107), poet, painter and collector of books,
MET 1977.78 
PAIXUE traces this evolution of classicising learning in Byzantine and Tang/Song literati culture from two angles. The first examines the galvanising function of social performances that involved classicising learning in the imperial systems. The second places the individual literatus centre-stage and explores the transformations of self-awareness, ethos, and self-cultivation. Given PAIXUE’s concern with examining phenomena cross-culturally in the longue-durée, rather than merely juxtaposing ‘spotlight’ impressions, a comparison of these two imperial systems does not only allow for deeper insights into the historical development of both China and Byzantium: it opens the possibility of studying cultural mechanisms behind the formation of institutions, practices and values. The project explores novel forms of collaboration in the humanities, including the co-authoring of research output between Byzantinists and Sinologists. Byzantium, frequently perceived as the ‘Other’ within western culture to the present day, serves here to build meaningful bridges to (pre-modern) China.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families

 [First posted in AWOL 28 January 2014, updated 18 January 2020]

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families
DIR is an on-line encyclopedia on the rulers of the Roman empire from Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) to Constantine XI Palaeologus (1449-1453). The encyclopedia consists of (1) an index of all the emperors who ruled during the empire's 1500 years, (2) a growing number of biographical essays on the individual emperors, (3) family trees ("stemmata") of important imperial dynasties, (4) an index of significant battles in the empire's history, (5) a growing number of capsule descriptions and maps of these battles, and (6) maps of the empire at different times. Wherever possible, these materials are cross-referenced by live links.
These contents are supplemented by an ancient and medieval atlas, a link to a virtual catalog of Roman coins, and other recommended links to related sites. The contents of DIR have been prepared by scholars but are meant to be accessible to non-specialists as well. They have been peer- reviewed for quality and accuracy before publication on this site.
-A- Aelia Eudocia (Wife of Theodosius II)
Aelia Eudoxia (Wife of Arcadius)
Aelianus (285 or 286 A.D.)
Aemilius Aemilianus (253 A.D.)
Mussius Aemilianus (A.D. 261)
Agnes of France (Wife of Alexius II Comnenus)
Agrippina the Elder (wife of Germanicus)
Agrippina the Younger (Wife of Claudius)
Clodius Albinus (193- 197 A.D.)
L. Domitius Alexander (308-309 A.D.)
Severus Alexander (A.D.222-235)
Alexius II Comnenus (A.D.1180-1183)
Allectus (293-296/7 A.D.)
Amandus (285 or 286 A.D.)
Anastasia (Daughter of Constantius I)
Anastasia (Wife of Constantine IV)
Anastasius (491-518 A.D.) \
Anastasius II (A.D. 713-715)
Andronicus I (1183-1185)
Anna (wife of Artabasdus)
Anna Dalassena (Mother of Alexius I Comnenus))
Anthemius (467- 472)
Antoninus Pius (138- 161 A.D.)
Arcadius (395-408 A.D.)
Arrecina Tertulla (Wife of Titus)
Artabasdus (742-743 A.D.)
Arvandus (468 A.D.)
Augustus (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)
Aurelian (270-275) A.D.)
Aurelius Achilleus (296/7- 297/8 A.D)
Aureolus (A.D. 262, 268)
Avidius Cassius (175 AD)
Avitus (455- 456A.D.)
Balbinus (238 A.D.)
Ballista (A.D. 261)
Basil II (976-1025 A.D.)
Basiliscus (475-476 A.D.)
Basiliscus (Leo) Caesar (A.D. 476-477/8)
Bertha of Sulzbach (wife of Manuel I Comnenus)
Bonosus (280 A.D.)
Britannicus (son of Claudius)
Caligula (37-41 A.D.)
Calocaerus (333/334 A.D)
Candidianus (Son of Galerius)
Caracalla (211- 217A.D)
Carausius (286/7-293 A.D.)
Carinus (283-285 A.D.)
Carus (282-283 A.D.)
Censorinus (269-270 A.D.)
Claudius (41-54 A.D.)
Claudius II Gothicus (268-270 A.D.)
Commodus (180-192 A.D)
Constans I (337-350 A.D.)
Constans II (409/10-411 A.D.)
Constans II (641-668 A.D.)
Constantia (the daughter of Constantius I)
Constantia (Daughter of Constantius II)
Constantina (the daughter of Constantine I)
Constantina (the wife of the Emperor Maurice)
Constantine I (306- 337 A.D.)
Constantine II (337-340 A.D.)
Constantine III (407-411 A.D.)
Constantine III (February -April/May 641 A.D.)
Constantine IV (668- 685 A.D)
Constantine V Copronymus (A.D. 741-775)
Constantine VI (780-797 A.D.)
Constantius I (305- 306 A.D.)
Julius Constantius
Constantius II (337- 361 A.D.)
Constantius III (421 A.D.)
C Cornelia Supra (wife of Aemilianus)
Crispus (317-326 A.D.)
Dalmatius Caesar (335-337 A.D)
Dalmatius the Censor (The Half-brother of Constantine I)
Decentius (351-353 A.D.)
Decius (249-251 A.D.)
Diadumenianus (218 A.D.)
Didius Julianus (193 A.D.)
Diocletian (284-305 A.D.)
Domitia Longina (Wife of Domitian)
Domitian (81- 96A.D.)
Domitianus (271-272 A.D.)
L. Domitius Domitianus (296/7- 297/8 A.D)
Domnica, Wife of the Emperor Valens
Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.)
Epiphania (daughter of Heraclius)
Eudocia (third wife of Constantine V)
Eudocia (daughter of Valentinian III)
Eudocia (First Wife of Justinian II)
Licinia Eudoxia (wife of Valentinian III)
Eugenius (303/4 A.D)
Flavius Eugenius (392- 394 A.D.)
Euphemia (wife of Justin I)
Eusebia (Wife of Constantius II)
Eutropia (Sister of Constantine I)
Eutropia (Wife of Maximianus Herculius)
Fabia-Eudocia (First Wife of Heraclius)
Fausta (Wife of Constans II)
Faustina (Wife of Antoninus Pius)
Faustina (Wife of Marcus Aurelius)
Annia Aurelia Faustina (third wife of Elagabal)
Faustinus (274 A.D.)
Firmus (273 A.D.)
Firmus (ca.372 -ca. 375 A.D.)
Felicissimus (270-271? A.D.)
Flavia Domitilla (Daughter of Vespasian)
Flavia Domitilla (Wife of Vespasian)
Florianus (276 A.D.)
Galba (68-69 A.D)
Galerius (305-311 A.D)
Galla Placidia
Gallienus (A.D. 253- 268)
Gallus Caesar (351- 354A.D.)
Gellius Maximus
Tiberius Gemellus (19- 37/38 A.D.)
Germanicus Caesar (15 B.C.- A.D. 19)
Geta (211 A.D.)
Gordian I (238A.D.)
Gordian II (238 A.D.)
Gordian III (238-244 A.,D.)
Gratian (367-83 A.D.)
Gratian (407 A.D.)
Gregoria (wife of Heraclius Constantine)
Gregory (646-647 A.D.)
Hadrian (117-138 A.D.)
Hannibalianus (Half- brother of Constantine I)
Hannibalianus (Rex Regum) (335-337 A.D.)
Helen (Wife of Julian the Transgressor)
Helena Dragas (wife of Manuel II)
Heraclius (610-641 A.D.)
Heraclonas (April/May - September 641 A.D.)
Herennia Etruscilla (wife of Decius)
Herennius Etruscus (A.D. 251)
Honorius (395-423 A.D.)
Hostilian (A.D. 251)
Ingenuus (260 A.D)
Ino (Wife of Tiberius II Constantine)
Iohannes (423-425 A.D.)
Iotapianus (248 A.D.)
Irene of Hungary (wife of John II Comnenus)
Irene (wife of Leo IV)
Irene (wife of Constantine V)
Irene (797-802 A.D.)
Isaac, Emperor of Cyprus
Iulianus (ca. 286-293 A.D.)
John II Comenus (1118-1143 A.D.)
Jovian (363-364 A.D)
Jovinus (411- 413 A.D.)
Julia (Daughter of Titus)
Julia Aquila Severa (second wife of Elagabal)
Julia Cornelia Paula (first wife of Elagabal)
Julia Domna
Julia Maesa
Julia Mamaea
Julia Soaemias
Julian the Apostate (A.D. 360-363)
Justa Honoria Grata
Justin (518-527 A.D.)
Justin II (565-578 A.D.)
Justinian I (527-565 A.D.)
Justinian II (685-695, 705-711 A.D.)
Laelianus (269 A.D.)
Leo I (457-474 A.D.)
Leo II (474 A.D)
Leo III (A.D 717- 741)
Leo IV (775-780 A.D.)
Leontia (wife of the Emperor Phocas)
Leontius (484-488 A.D.)
Leontius (695-698 A.D.)
Libius Severus (461- 465 A.D.)
Iulius Valens Licinianus (ca. 249-251 A.D.)
Licinius (308-324 A.D)
Livia (the wife of Augustus)
Lucilla (Wife of Lucius Verus)
Lucius Verus (161-166 AD)
L. Clodius Macer (68 A.D.)
Macrianus I (A.D. 260-261)
Macrianus II (A.D. 260-261)
Macrinus (217-218 A.D.)
Magnentius (350-353 A.D.)
Magnus (235 A.D.)
Magnus Maximus (383- 388 A.D.)
Majorian (457-461 A.D.)
Manuel I (A.D. 1143- 1180)
Manuel II (1391-1425 A.D.) A.D.)
Marcia Furnilla (Wife of Titus)
Marcus (406- 407 A.D)
Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161-180)
Mareades (253-260 A.D.)
Maria (second wife of Constantine V)
Maria (wife of Constantine VI)
Maria (wife of Leo III)
Maria of Antioch (wife of Manuel Comnenus)
Maria the Alan (wife of Michael VII)
Marius (269 A.D.)
Maria Porphyrogenita, daughter of Manuel I Comnenus
Martina (Second Wife of Heraclius)
Martinianus (324A.D)
Maurice (582-602 A.D.)
Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)
Maximianus Herculius (285-305 A.D.)
Maximinus Daia (305-313 A.D.)
Maximinus Thrax (235-238 A.D.)
Maximus (409- 411 A.D.)
Marcellus (366 A.D.)
Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161-180)
Marcus Caesar (A.D. 475-476)
Memor (A.D. 262)
Mezezius (669 A.D.)
Julius Nepos (474-480 A.D.)
Nepotian (355 A.D.)
Nero (54-68 A.D.)
Nerva (96-98 A.D.)
Pescennius Niger (193- 194 A.D.)
Nicephorus (802-811 A.D.)
Nicephorus Bryennius (A.D.1078-1081)
Nicephorus III Botaniates (A.D.1078-1081)
Nicephorus Melissenus (A.D.1080-1081)
Nicephorus Basilacius (A.D.1078-1081)
Numerianus (283-284 A.D.)
(Claudia) Octavia,daughter of Claudius
Olybrius (472 A.D.)
Olympius (649-653 A.D.)
Otho (69 A.D.)
Pacatianus (248 A.D.)
Palladius Caesar (455 A.D.)
Patricius Caesar (A.D. 469)
Pertinax (192-193 A.D.)
Petronius Maximus (455 A.D.)
Philip the Arab (244-249 A.D.)
Philip Iunior (247-249 A.D.)
Philippicus Bardanes (A.D. 711-713)
Piso (A.D. 261)
Publia Fulvia Plautilla (wife of Caracalla)
Pompeia Plotina(Wife of Trajan)
Postumus (A.D. 260- 269)
Prisca (Wife of Diocletian)
T. Julius Priscus (ca. 249-251 A.D.)
Priscus Attalus (409-410, 414-415 A.D.)
Pulcheria (Wife of the Emperor Marcian)
Pupienus (Maximus) (238 A.D.)
Probus (276-282 A.D.)
Procopius (365-366 A.D.)
Proculus (280- 281 A.D.)
Quartinus (235 A.D.)
Quietus (A.D. 260-261)
Quintillus (270A.D)
Regalianus 260 A.D.)
Romanus (470A.D.)
Romulus Augustulus (475-476 A.D.)
Sabinianus (240 A.D.)
C. Nymphidius Sabinus (68 A.D)
Sallustia Orbiana (wife of Alexander Severus)
L. Seius Sallustius (A.D. 225-227)
L. Antonius Saturninus (89 A.D.)
Saturninus (281 A.D)
Sebastianus (412-413 A.D.)
Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)
Septimius (271-272 A.D.)
Severus Alexander (A.D.222-235)
Severus II (306-307 A.D)
Silbannacus (248 A.D.)
Silvanus (355 A.D.)
Sophia (Wife of Justin II)
Sponsianus (248 A.D.)
Stauricius (822 A.D.)
Tacitus (275-276 A.D.)
Tetricus I (271-274 A.D.)
Tetricus II (273?- 274 A.D.}
Theodora (Wife of Constantius Chlorus)
Theodora (Wife of Justinian I)
Theodora (Second Wife of Justinian II)
Theodosius I the Great (378-395 A.D.)
Theodosius II (408-450 A.D.)
Theodosius III (A.D. 715-717)
Theophano, wife of Romanus II and Nicephorus II Phocas
Theodote (wife of Constantine VI)
Tiberius (14-37 A.D.)
Tiberius II (I) Constantine (578-582 A.D.)
Tiberius III (II) (698-705 A.D.)
Titus (79-81 A.D.)
Trajan (A.D. 98- 117)
Trebonianus Gallus (251-253 A.D.)
Ulpia Severina (wife of Aurelian)
Uranius (ca. 218-235 and/or 253/4? A.D.)
Urbanus (271- 272 A.D.)
Vaballathus (270-272 A.D.)
Valens (316 A.D.)
Valens (A.D. 261)
Valens(364- 378A.D.)
Valentinan I (364-375 A.D.)
Valentinian II (375- 92 A.D.)
Valentinian III (425-455 A.D.)
Galeria Valeria (Wife of Galerius)
Valeria Maximilla (daughter of Galerius)
Valeria Messalina (Wife of Claudius)
Valerian (A.D. 253- 260)
Valerius Romulus (son of Maxentius)
Aelia Verina (Wife of Leo I)
Vespasian (69 -79 A.D)
Vetranio (350 A.D.)
Vibia Sabina (Wife of Hadrian)
Flavius Victor (384- 388 A.D)
Victorinus (269-270 A.D.)
C. Iulius Vindex (68 A.D.)
Vitellius (69 A.D)
Volusianus (251-253 A.D.)
Zeno (474-491 A.D.)
Zenobia (270-272 A.D.)
Zoe Porphyrogenita (wife of Romanus III, Constantine IX, and Michael IV)