Sunday, November 4, 2018

Now online: ‘Atiqot 92 (2018)

‘Atiqot 92 (2018)
  • Ḥorbat ‘Ofrat in the Late Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Periods (pp. 1–68)
    Yardenna Alexandre
    Keywords: Lower Galilee, numismatics, fauna, economy, cross, ethnicity, burial, glass, agriculture, monastery, Fatamid period, Jews, Christians, Great Revolt
    At the site, located near Shefar’am in the Lower Galilee, six architectural strata (VI–I) were discerned. Their dates range from the late Hellenistic to the late Byzantine/Early Islamic periods. During the late Hellenistic period (Hasmonean period; second century BCE), there was a small village at the site, which was possibly settled by Judean colonizers. The finds from the Early Roman period include Kefar Ḥananya wares and a few chalkstone vessel fragments, which hint at the Jewish identity of the inhabitants. In the Middle Roman period (third–fourth centuries CE), there was renewed activity at the site; the pottery forms, including Kefar Ḥananya wares, are characteristic of Jewish settlements in the region. After a gap, the site was resettled during the early Byzantine period (fifth century CE), possibly by a Christian population. During the middle Byzantine period (late fifth–sixth centuries CE), new buildings were erected, and remains of large-scale food-processing were found; these were possibly associated with a monastery, a farm, or a lodging inn for Christian pilgrims en route from ‘Akko to the Galilee. Activity in the late Byzantine–Early Islamic periods (early seventh century CE) consisted of small-scale industrial burning activity, carried out by a new short-lived population at the site.

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    • The Glass Finds from Ḥorbat ‘Ofrat (pp. 69–82)
      Tamar Winter
      Keywords: Lower Galilee, glass production
      The excavation in the dwellings and agricultural installations at Ḥorbat ‘Ofrat in the Lower Galilee yielded nearly 400 glass fragments, about half of which were diagnostic. The finds range in date from the Early Roman to the late Ottoman periods. Most of the finds date from the fourth–early fifth centuries CE (Strata IV and III), comprising bowls, beakers, bottles and jugs, and from the sixth–seventh centuries CE (Strata II and I), including bowls, wineglasses, bottles and lamps. The glass vessels shed light on everyday life in a rural settlement in the Lower Galilee.
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    • The Coins from Ḥorbat ‘Ofrat (pp. 83–92)
      Gabriela Bijovsky
      Keywords: Lower Galilee, numismatics, mint, hoard
      This article constitutes a report on the numismatic finds from the IAA 2008 excavations at Ḥorbat ‘Ofrat, as well as on a hoard found near the site in 1962, and another small hoard discovered at the same spot in 1972. In the 2008 excavation, 31 bronze coins, 6 of which were unidentifiable, were found, predominately dating to the fourth century CE (Stratum IV). Three coins precede this period: a ‘year two’ pruṭa of the Jewish War and two antoniniani of Gallienus and his wife Salonina. The 1962 hoard dates from the mid-fourth century CE. The coins from the 1972 excavation include a small hoard of eleven Late Roman coins, the latest dating no later than 346 CE, during the Gallus Revolt.
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    • The Fauna from Ḥorbat ‘Ofrat (pp. 93–104)
      Nimrod Marom
      Keywords: Lower Galilee, archaeozoology, burning, economy
      The small faunal assemblage from Ḥorbat ‘Ofrat contains a diverse assortment of bones that were affected by subaerial weathering. A high frequency of cattle was noticed for the Roman strata, suggesting that the economy of the settlement focused on agricultural production. During the transition to the early Byzantine period, a shift was observed, whence sheep and goats became more dominant than cattle, possibly due to an economic shift from agricultural production to a consumption economy that relied on sheep and goats for meat. In the latest occupation at the site, three camel mandibles were found, exhibiting burning patterns that could have been caused by using the large jaws as clamps to hold objects in a fire.
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  • The Spina (Barrier) of the Eastern Circus at Caesarea Maritima (Hebrew, pp. 1*–62*; English summary, pp. 217–230)
    Yosef Porath
    Keywords: Roman leisure culture, facility, entertainment, architecture
    The IAA excavations at the Eastern Circus of Caesarea were limited to two excavation areas (VI and VIa) and the anastylosis of the obelisk. Area VI was opened parallel and perpendicular to the obelisk, and Area VIa was opened 150–185 m south of the obelisk, revealing the remains of the spina, meta prima and arena floor. Four architectural strata were revealed in both areas: Stratum IV comprises pre-circus remains; Stratum III, the construction of the Eastern Circus in the second century CE until its abandonment in 640 CE; and Strata II and I attest to post-circus activity at the site, mainly for agriculture. The finds allow for a detailed discussion of the architectural elements and suggestions for their reconstruction. The plan and dimensions of the Eastern Circus of Caesarea, as well as its decoration, are in line with other well-preserved circuses revealed throughout the Roman Empire, e.g., in Rome, Lepcis Magna and Tyre.

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    • A Chronological Revision of the Date of the Pottery Finds from the Eastern Circus at Caesarea Maritima (pp. 105–136)
      Peter Gendelman
      Keywords: Classical period, ceramics, typology, chronology
      The pottery recovered from the IAA excavations in the Eastern Circus originated from stratigraphic contexts related to four major stages: Stratum IV—pre-circus remains; Stratum III—the construction phase of the circus subdivided into three phases (a–c); Stratum II—post-circus activities; and Stratum I—modern topsoil. The pottery associated with the pre-circus remains was dated to between the end of the first century BCE and the second half of the first century CE, and included imported and locally produced vessels. The pottery from the foundation trench of the spina and from sandy fills below the earliest arena (Phase IIIc) dates the erection of the Eastern Circus to the second century CE, possibly under Emperor Hadrian (117–138 CE). The Phase IIIb pottery dates the renovation phase of the edifice to the late fourth century CE as the initiation date for this phase. The Phase IIIa pottery dates the final stage of the circus to the fifth–sixth centuries CE. The pottery from Stratum II provides an eighth–ninth-century CE date for the agricultural reuse of the area of the Eastern Circus arena. Modern activities at the site (Stratum I) included vessels of the Byzantine, Early Islamic and Crusader periods, and a tile fragment from the late nineteenth–early twentieth centuries.
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    • The Oil Lamps from the Eastern Circus at Caesarea Maritima (pp. 137–140)
      Yosef Porath
      Keywords: pottery, mold-made, wheel-made
      An intact lamp and several lamp fragments were found within fills which were part of the Herodian city dump or were brought to the site to level the area for the erection of the circus. The oil lamps date to the Early Roman period, indicating that the construction of the Eastern Circus (Stratum III) was initiated not earlier than the beginning of the second century CE, corresponding to the date of the pottery and the coins.
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    • Statues from the Eastern Circus at Caesarea Maritima (pp. 141–159)
      Rivka Gersht
      Keywords: Roman art, architecture, sculpture, iconography
      Fragments of four statues were uncovered during the 2001–2004 excavations in the Eastern Circus at Caesarea. These were clearly part of the decoration scheme of the spina. Three of the fragments are of human figures—two belong to draped female figures—and the fourth is a fragment of an animal (a bull?). This article attempts to interpret each of the sculpted images within the environment of the circus. It appears that the Eastern Circus was affluently decorated, in accordance with the findings from other circuses throughout the Roman Empire.
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    • The Coins from the Eastern Circus at Caesarea Maritima (pp. 161–166)
      Gabriela Bijovsky
      Keywords: numismatics
      During the excavations at the Eastern Circus, 44 coins were discovered, 31 of which were identifiable. The coins range in date from the first until the ninth century CE. All the Roman Provincial coins discovered at the site were struck in Caesarea.
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    • A Greek Curse Tablet from the Eastern Circus at Caesarea Maritima (pp. 167–174)
      Robert Daniel and Yosef Porath
      Keywords: epigraphy, Roman leisure culture, facility, entertainment
      Excavations along the spina of the Eastern Circus at Caesarea revealed six folded lead tablets: five near the meta prima, one near the fallen obelisk and one west of the meta prima, nailed down to the arena surface by a long iron nail. Tablet No. 3 bears a Greek inscription, comprising a curse directed against unnamed charioteers who would compete against a charioteer named Domninus and his horses. The curse tablet was found close to one of the circus’s turning-posts, where it would have been most efficacious.
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    • Anastylosis of the Obelisk in the Eastern Circus at Caesarea Maritima (pp. 175–192)
      Yoram Sa‘ad
      Keywords: technology, reconstruction, conservation
      In the center of the Eastern Circus at Caesarea, a fallen obelisk was found broken, in three parts. Considering its importance and special nature, it was decided to raise it on its original location. To do so, a committee of experts, including historians, archaeologists, architects, engineers and conservators, was consulted. The article illustrates the engineering plan, the decision-making processes and the outcome of the anastylosis.
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  • Remains from the Roman until the Crusader Periods in Tiberias, Aviv Hotel (with a contribution by Yael Gorin-Rosen) (Hebrew, pp. 63*–88*; English summary, pp. 231–233)
    Oren Zingboym, Aharon Amitai and Dina Avshalom-Gorni
    Keywords: architecture, city limits, imported pottery, typology, water supply
    Two excavation areas (A, B) were opened in the precincts of the Aviv Hotel in Tiberias. Five strata were identified: architectural remains from the Roman period (Stratum 5; 50 BCE–late third century CE); part of a mosaic pavement, the remains of a building and a plastered pool from the Byzantine–Umayyad periods (Stratum 4; fourth–eighth centuries CE); wall segments from the Abbasid period (Stratum 3; ninth–eleventh centuries CE); a reservoir and the corner of a building from the Crusader period (Stratum 2; twelfth–thirteenth centuries CE); and remains of a modern building and refuse (Stratum 1; twentieth century). The finds included pottery vessels, coins and glass fragments from the Roman to the Crusader periods.
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    • Tiberias, Aviv Hotel: Domestic and Industrial Pottery from the Abbasid and Crusader Periods (pp. 193–216)
      Edna J. Stern
      Keywords: typology, sugar production, molasses jars, kiln bars, pottery production, trade, imports, Mediterranean Sea, Frankish, scallop shell, pilgrim badge, Santiago de Compostela
      This article presents the pottery from the Abbasid and Crusader periods uncovered in Area B of the Aviv Hotel excavations in Tiberias. The site is situated within the precincts of the Abbasid town, but outside the walled city of the Crusader period. The Abbasid-period assemblage consists mainly of types well-known in Tiberias, reinforcing other evidence concerning pottery production in Tiberias during this period. The pottery from the Crusader period (mid-twelfth–early thirteenth centuries CE) includes glazed bowls from the Aegean region, and possibly cooking ware and glazed bowls from Beirut. Among the imported glazed bowls are two examples of broad-incised sgraffito, also known as ‘Byzantine Incised Sgraffito Ware’ or ‘Aegean Wares’, one of which is decorated with an incised design of a warrior. The imported pottery probably arrived at the site by inland routes, possibly from the port of ‘Akko. The pottery was found outside the city walls, in conjunction with plastered pools and sugar-production vessels, apparently indicating an activity that was carried out outside the city.
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