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New from the CHS: Particles in Ancient Greek Discourse: Five Volumes Exploring Particle Use Across Genres

Particles in Ancient Greek Discourse: Five Volumes Exploring Particle Use Across Genres

Table of Contents

Volume I. Foundations

I.1 General introduction (AB, AD, MdK)
1.1 The extent of the project §§2-3
1.2 Goals §§4-7
1.3 The term “particle” §§8-11
1.4 The discourse approach: Key concepts §§12-17
1.5 A discourse approach to ancient Greek particles §§18-21
1.6 Guiding questions §22
1.7 Outline of the work §§23-33
          1.7.1 Volume I §§24-25
          1.7.2 Volume II §§26-27
          1.7.3 Volume III §§28-29
          1.7.4 Volume IV §§30-31
          1.7.5 Volume V §§32-33
I.2 From σύνδεσμοι to particulae (MdK)
2.1 Introduction §§1-3
2.2 Early study of grammar §§4-8
2.3 The Téchnē attributed to Dionysius Thrax §§9-13
2.4 Early definitions of σύνδεσμοι §§14-17
2.5 The scholia §§18-46
          2.5.1 Terminology §§18-19
          2.5.2 σύνδεσμοι in the scholia §§20-27
          2.5.3 Aristarchus on σύνδεσμοι §§28-31
          2.5.4 Redundancy §32
          2.5.5 Interchangeability §§33-38
          2.5.6 ἄν and κε(ν) §§39-40
          2.5.7 Noteworthy readings of particles §§41-46
2.6 The Téchnē and other early scholarship §§47-59
          2.6.1 Trypho §§50-51
          2.6.2 Apollonius the Sophist §§52-53
          2.6.3 σύνδεσμοι in the Téchnē §§54-57
          2.6.4 Pseudo-Demetrius’ Style §§58-59
2.7 Apollonius Dyscolus §§60-76
          2.7.1 Subcategories §§66-71
          2.7.2 Important topics raised by Apollonius §§72-76
2.8 After Apollonius Dyscolus §§77-91
          2.8.1 Early grammars §§79-81
          2.8.2 Late Antique scholia to the Téchnē §§82-84
          2.8.3 The Medieval lexicographers §§85-89
2.9. A renaissance of the particle §§90-91
2.10 Appendix: the functions of combiners §92
I.3 Approaches to particles and discourse markers (AD)
3.1 Introduction §§1-5
3.2 Terminology, definition, and classification §§6-15
3.3 Different approaches in discourse-marker studies §§16-51
          3.3.1 Coherence approaches §§17-24
          3.3.2 Conversation Analysis §§25-32
          3.3.3 Relevance Theory §§33-40
          3.3.4 Construction Grammar §§41-51
3.4 Further relevant studies §§52-57
3.5 Studies on particles and discourse markers in Greek and Latin §§58-74
3.6 Conclusions §§75-77
I.4 General conclusions (AB, AD, MdK)
4.1 Particles invite sensitivity to discourse §§2-6
4.2 What to look out for in connection with particles §§7-11
4.3 Particles, text, and literature §§12-16
4.4 Directions in ancient Greek particle studies §§17-19

Volume II. Particle Use in Homer and Pindar (MdK)

II.1 Introduction
1.1 Starting points §§6-10
1.2 Sneak preview §§11-14
Table 1: Particle frequencies in Homer and Pindar §14
II.2 Discourse acts: The domain of particle analysis
2.1 Introduction §§3-20
          2.1.1 Kôlon, intonation unit, and discourse act §§9-20
          2.1.2 Distinguishing potential discourse acts §§21-23
2.2 Discourse acts in Homer §§24-36
          2.2.1 Homeric δέ §§31-36
2.3 Discourse acts in Pindar §§37-45
2.4 μέν in Homer and Pindar §§46-62
          2.4.1 μέν projecting acts and moves §§49-56
          2.4.2 Small-scope μέν: projection and contrast §§57-62
2.5 Priming acts §§63-79
          2.5.1 Priming acts in Homeric narrative §§64-71
          2.5.2 Priming acts in Pindar §§72-79
                   2.5.2.1 Pindaric priming acts with second-person pronouns §§73-79
2.6 Conclusions §§80-82
II.3 Moves: Particles at discourse transitions
3.1 Moves §§2-5
          3.1.1 Move transitions §§6-11
3.2 Particles in narrative §§12-50
          3.2.1 Narrative moves §§14-19
          3.2.2 γάρ at narrative beginnings §§20-32
                   3.2.2.1 καὶ γάρ §§30-32
          3.2.3 ἤδη and ἦ marking beginnings §§33-43
          3.2.4 Other narrative beginnings §§45-50
3.3 Move transitions in Homeric narrative §§51-64
          3.3.1 Homeric δή I: Marking narrative steps §§53-58
          3.3.2 Homeric δή II: Intensifying constituents or acts §§59-63
          3.3.3 Homeric δή: Conclusions §64
3.4 Move transitions in Pindaric discourse §§65-76
          3.4.1 Particles at move transitions in narrative §§65-67
          3.4.2 The discursive flow of lyric song: Pythian 2 §§68-76
3.5 Conclusions §§77-81
II.4 Discourse memory: The negotiation of shared knowledge
4.1 Discourse memory §§5-10
4.2 Unframed discourse §§11-28
          4.2.1 γάρ and δὴ γάρ introducing unframed discourse in Homeric epic §§15-23
          4.2.2 γάρ and unframed discourse in Pindar §§24-25
          4.2.3 γάρ in Homer and Pindar: an overview §§26-28
4.3 Particles in the Homeric simile §§29-45
          4.3.1 τε in the simile §§32-37
          4.3.2 ἄρα in the simile §§38-41
          4.3.3 The linguistic form of the simile §§42-45
4.4 Scripts, scenarios, and traditional knowledge §§46-53
          4.4.1 Particles in two recurrent themes §§50-53
4.5 τε in Pindar §§54-68
          4.5.1 “Epic” τε in Pindar §§55-57
          4.5.2 Copulative τε in Pindar §§58-68
4.6 Conclusions §§69-72
II.5 Particles and anaphoric reference
5.1 A discourse approach to anaphoric reference §§4-10
5.2 ὁ and ὅς §§11-17
5.3 ὁ/ὅς + particle in Homer §§18-71
          5.3.1 ὁ δέ §§19-26
          5.3.2 ὅ γε §§27-50
          5.3.3 ὁ δ᾽ἄρα and ὅ(ς) ῥα §§51-62
          5.3.4 ὁ(ς) δή §§63-71
5.4 Participant tracking in a Pindaric ode: Isthmian 2 §§72-80
5.5 Conclusions §§81-85

Volume III. Particle Use in Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes (AD)

III.1 Introduction
1.1 The performative context §§3-5
1.2 Themes and findings §§6-17
III.2 Varying one’s speech: Discourse patterns
2.1 Introduction §§1-21
          2.1.1 Theoretical background: Discourse patterns and registers §§4-9
          2.1.2 Research on linguistic variation in ancient Greek drama §§10-15
          2.1.3 Methodology in this chapter §§16-21
2.2 Distribution as input for interpretation §§22-89
          2.2.1 δέ §§24-32
          2.2.2 καί §§33-38
          2.2.3 τε §§39-49
          2.2.4 γάρ §§50-57
          2.2.5 γε and δῆτα §§58-63
          2.2.6 ἀλλά §§64-68
          2.2.7 μέν §§69-72
          2.2.8 δή §§73-79
          2.2.9 οὖν §§80-84
          2.2.10 ἦ §§85-89
2.3 Conclusions §§90-95
2.4 Appendix: non-significant distributions §96
III.3 Reusing others’ words: Resonance
3.1 Introduction §§1-26
          3.1.1 What is dialogic resonance? §§3-7
          3.1.2 Studies on resonance in modern languages §§8-14
          3.1.3 Studies on resonance in ancient Greek §§15-24
          3.1.4 This chapter §§25-26
3.2. Resonance in tragedy and comedy §§27-73
          3.2.1 Functions of resonance §§27-32
          3.2.2 Resonance used by speaking characters §§33-49
                   3.2.2.1 Resonance stressing unity of speakers and actions §§33-38
                   3.2.2.2 Resonance stressing differences §§39-49
          3.2.3 Resonance used by playwrights §§50-72
                   3.2.3.1 Resonance stressing a theme §§50-56
                   3.2.3.2 Resonance characterizing a speaker and an interaction §§57-62
                   3.2.3.3 Resonance used for humor §§63-69
                   3.2.3.4 Resonance creating parody §§70-72
          3.2.4 Conclusions about resonance in tragedy and comedy §73
3.3 The role of particles in the process of resonance §§74-102
          3.3.1 Particles indicating how resonance is used §§74-89
                   3.3.1.1 γε §§76-79
                   3.3.1.2 δέ (...) γε §§80-83
                   3.3.1.3 δῆτα §§84-88
                   3.3.1.4 καί §§89-94
                   3.3.1.5 γάρ §§95-98
          3.3.2 Particles triggering resonance themselves §§99-102
3.4 Conclusions §§103-108
III.4 Speaking in turns: Conversation Analysis
4.1 Introduction §§1-25
          4.1.1 Tragic and comic conversation §§1-6
          4.1.2 Conversation Analysis (CA) §§7-23
          4.1.3 Applying CA to particles in tragedy and comedy §§24-25
4.2 Turn-taking §§26-31
4.3 Sequence organization §§32-48
          4.3.1 Adjacency pairs and adjacency-pair series §§33-42
          4.3.2 Pair expansions §§43-48
4.4 Preference organization §§49-56
          4.4.1 Preferred responses §§50-52
          4.4.2 Dispreferred responses §§53-56
4.5 The actions performed by turns §§57-70
          4.5.1 τοι §§58-61
          4.5.2 Turn-initial γε §§62-64
          4.5.3 Utterance starts without particles §§65-70
4.6 Conclusions §§71-72
4.7 Appendix: Quantitative observations on turn-initial expressions §§73-75
III.5 Reflecting emotional states of mind: Calmness versus agitation
5.1 Introduction §§1-8
5.2 Approaches to emotions §§9-25
          5.2.1 Emotions in ancient Greek texts §§9-21
          5.2.2 Calmness versus agitation beyond ancient Greek §§22-25
5.3 Reflections of calmness and agitation §§26-50
          5.3.1 Calmness §§27-43
          5.3.2 Agitation §§44-50
5.4 The different emotional and interactional associations of γε in Aristophanes §§51-63
          5.4.1 γε in angry contexts §§53-58
          5.4.2 γε in stancetaking contexts §§59-63
5.5 Two tragic case studies of calm versus agitated discourse §§64-87
          5.5.1 Sophocles’ calm versus agitated Oedipus §§65-77
          5.5.2 Euripides’ agitated Pentheus versus calm Dionysus §§78-87
5.6 Conclusions §§88-94

Volume IV. Particle Use in Herodotus and Thucydides (AB)

IV.1 Introduction
1.1 Themes and examples §§4-9
1.2 A different perspective on historiographical texts §§10-15
IV.2 Multifunctionality of δέ, τε, and καί
2.1 And-coordination §§1-13
2.2 δέ marking the beginning of a new discourse act §§14-46
          2.2.1 δέ in phrases §§26-28
          2.2.2 δέ in syntactically independent clauses §§29-31
          2.2.3 “Inceptive” δέ §§32-35
          2.2.4 “Αpodotic” δέ §§36-37
          2.2.5 δέ in priming acts §§38-41
          2.2.6 When the force of two contiguous δέ acts changes §§42-45
          2.2.7 Interim conclusion §46
2.3 The continuum of τε §§47-92
          2.3.1 τε and shared knowledge §§54-69
          2.3.2 Further enrichments §§70-73
          2.3.3 τε “solitarium” and “sentential” τε §§74-77
          2.3.4 τε connections backward-oriented: the coda effect §§78-79
          2.3.5 τε connections forward-oriented: τε as a projecting marker, and τε at the beginning of lists §§80-84
          2.3.6 τε starting moves §§85-87
          2.3.7 Backward and forward τε connections: intonational parallels? §§88-90
          2.3.8 Interim conclusion §§91-92
2.4 καί between link and climax §§93-137
          2.4.1 καί in combinations §§95-101
          2.4.2 Using καί to pin down §§102-105
          2.4.3 Using καί to mark narrative peaks §§106-107
          2.4.4 Using καί to start narrative expansions §§108-111
          2.4.5 Using καί to wrap accounts up §§112-113
          2.4.6 Enrichments of καί when καί is untranslated §§114-116
          2.4.7 καί as “or” §§117-121
          2.4.8 καί and the idea of climax §§122-132
          2.4.9 Interim conclusion §§133-137
2.5 Conclusions §§138-146
IV.3 Discourse segmentation
3.1 Introduction §§1-7
3.2 Punctuation between grammar and prosody §§8-15
3.3 Modern punctuation of ancient Greek texts: Focus on syntactic hierarchy and on periodic styles §§16-27
3.4 Ancient punctuation: Focus on delivery §§28-37
3.5 Ancient segmentation: Units and subunits syntactically unspecified §§38-45
3.6 Modern acknowledgment of prose colometry §§46-52
3.7 Modern segmentation above the sentence level §§53-56
3.8 The role of particles: matches and mismatches §§57-64
3.9 The holistic principle of discourse segmentation §§65-69
3.10 Herodotus’ and Thucydides’ discourse acts §§70-91
          3.10.1 Segmenting an “unsuccessful” period in Herodotus §§75-82
          3.10.2 Segmenting a “descending” period in Thucydides §§83-91
3.11 Herodotus’ and Thucydides’ moves §§92-146
          3.11.1 Move starts with priming acts §§107-116
          3.11.2 οὗτος forms at the end or start of moves §§117-124
          3.11.3 οὗτος forms + μέν; οὗτος forms + δή; act-peninitial δή §§125-129
          3.11.4 μὲν δή and μέν νυν in Herodotus §§130-143
          3.11.5 μὲν οὖν in Thucydides §§144-146
3.12 Conclusions §§147-157
IV.4 Tracking voice and stance
4.1 Introduction §§1-14
4.2 Tracking voice §§15-29
          4.2.1 Speech and thought: A figured stage of voices §§19-25
          4.2.2 Authorial statements §§26-29
4.3 The contribution of particles to marking voice §§30-44
          4.3.1 ἦ μήν in indirect speech §§32-33
          4.3.2 τοι in Herodotus, in and beyond direct speech §§34-39
          4.3.3 γε in authorial statements §§40-44
4.4 Tracking stance §§45-84
          4.4.1 The stance triangle §§46-51
          4.4.2 Positioning, evaluating, and (dis)aligning in Herodotus and Thucydides §§52-63
          4.4.3 Epistemic and emotional stance: avoiding dichotomies §§64-69
          4.4.4 Stance vs. focalization §§70-75
          4.4.5 Reader response: Eliciting the audience’s stance §§76-80
          4.4.6 Irony: The “author – audience” vector §§81-84
4.5 δή in Herodotus: how it connotes voice and stance §§85-109
          4.5.1 Voicing narrative progression §§89-91
          4.5.2 Perception of evidence §§92-93
          4.5.3 In indirect speech and indirect thought §§94-100
          4.5.4 In explicit and implicit authorial statements §§101-103
          4.5.5 “Ironic” δή §§104-108
          4.5.6 Interim conclusion §109
4.6 δή in Thucydides: whose stance? §§110-127
          4.6.1 Characters’ stance in direct speech, indirect speech, and indirect thought §§112-115
          4.6.2 Implicit authorial δή, especially with superlatives §§116-119
          4.6.3 When multiple voices share the same stance §§120-122
          4.6.4 Any irony? §§123-126
          4.6.5 Interim conclusion §127
4.7 Stance and polyphony in the use of δῆθεν §§128-136
4.8 ἤδη as stance marker §§137-164
          4.8.1 Pragmatic relationship to δή §§145-150
          4.8.2 Author’s and characters’ ἤδη to mark firsthand experience §§151-155
          4.8.3 Thucydides’ blending of stances §§156-159
          4.8.4 Stance about time, and propositional “now” §§160-162
          4.8.5 Interim conclusion §§163-164
4.9 ἄρα between discourse cohesion and the marking of stance §§165-172
4.10 Conclusions §§173-183
IV.5 Analysis of four excerpts
5.1 Introduction §§1-7
5.2 Nicias’ warnings: Thucydides 6.22-23 §§8-29
5.3 Reactions after the Sicilian Expedition: Thucydides 8.1 §§30-48
5.4 Reactions after Salamis: Herodotus 8.108-109.1 §§49-69
5.5 Artabanus’ warnings: Herodotus 7.49 and 51 §§70-97
5.6 Conclusions §§98-113
5.7 Appendix: The continuous texts divided into acts and moves

Volume V. Online Repository of Particle Studies: Scholarship on twelve particles and their combinations from 1572 to present

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