Monday, July 4, 2022

Matriarchy in Bronze Age Crete: A Perspective from Archaeomythology and Modern Matriarchal Studies

book cover

Matriarchy in Bronze Age Crete: A Perspective from Archaeomythology and Modern Matriarchal Studies offers a very different perspective of Crete than is usually found in academic writing; making a compelling case for a matriarchal Bronze Age Crete.

Bronze Age Crete evokes for many the image of an exceptionally sophisticated civilization: peaceful, artistic, and refined; a society in which women were highly visible and important, and the supreme deity was a Goddess. Yet, despite the fact that authorities acknowledge that the preeminent deity of Crete was a Female Divine, and that women played a major role in Cretan society, there is a gap in the scholarly literature, and a lively, ongoing debate regarding the centrality of women and the existence of matriarchy in Bronze Age Crete.

The purpose of this work is to fill that gap, and to advance the debate over whether or not ancient Crete was a woman-centered and matriarchal society toward a more complex, detailed, and certain conclusion. To that end this publication utilises the field of modern matriarchal studies, with its carefully elucidated definition of the term matriarchy, and employs the methodology of archaeomythology – the use of historical, mythological, linguistic, and folkloric as well as archaeological sources.

Given its scope, the volume will be of interest to scholars and students in the fields encompassed by archaeomythology, as well as the fields of women’s studies, women’s history, women’s spirituality, and modern matriarchal studies.

H 245 x W 174 mm

280 pages

16 colour figures

Published Jun 2022

Archaeopress Archaeology


Paperback: 9781803270449

Digital: 9781803270456


List of Figures ;
Preface ;
Introduction ;
Chapter 1: Literature Review ;
Chapter 2: Methodology ;
Chapter 3: Theoretical Context: Matriarchy / Patriarchy Debates ;
Chapter 4: The Mother Goddess of Crete: Interpreting the Archaeological Record, Iconography, and Sacred Sites, Using Cultural Context, Mythology, and Historical Correlates ;
Chapter 5: Analysis of the Iconography of the Mother Goddess in Crete ;
Chapter 6: The Role of Women in Bronze Age Crete: Bull-Leapers, Priestesses, Queens, and Property Holders ;
Chapter 7: Models of Rulership: the Paucity of Images of Male Rulers; the Images of Female Rulers ;
Chapter 8: Was Bronze Age Crete a Matriarchy? ;





Sunday, July 3, 2022

New Open Access Journal: Pylon. Editions and Studies of Ancient Texts

Pylon. Editions and Studies of Ancient Texts aims to publish high quality research on Greek, Latin and Coptic papyri in a timely manner. New text editions of documentary, literary and subliterary papyri or corrections to previously published texts are especially sought. General studies based on papyrological evidence that relate to any aspect of Greco-Roman society in Egypt are also welcome. Articles can be in English, French, German and Italian.

Pylon (ancient Greek πυλών or "gateway") is the OJS journal of the Papyrological Publishing Platform (P3), a collaborative project funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and led by Heidelberg University's Institute for Papyrology and University Library and Duke University's Collaborative for Classics Computing in the United States. The goal of P3 is to facilitate data transfer between scholarly journals and the papyrological data repository, as it converts transcriptions of ancient texts to EpiDoc for easy transfer to The journal is perceived as a central gateway for this, hence its name.

Although Pylon is primarily an online journal that publishes XML, it also provides PDFs of all articles for download. These are generated automatically from the XML, and are not subject to traditional formatting.

More information about the journal is available here. Details concerning the submission process can be found under submissions; questions can also be directed to any of the editors.

Notes and Corrections

See AWOL's full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies


New from the Oriental Institute: LAMINE 3. Scripts and Scripture: Writing and Religion in Arabia circa 500–700 CE











Fred M. Donner and Rebecca Hasselbach-Andee, eds., with contributions by Ahmad Al-Jallad, François Déroche, Fred M. Donner, Suleyman Dost, Adam Flowers, Sidney Griffith, Robert G. Hoyland, Ilkka Lindstedt, Kyle Longworth, Michael C. A. Macdonald, Laïla Nehmé, Gordon Newby, and Hamza M. Zafer
Series Editors: Antoine Borrut and Fred M. Donner

How did Islam’s sacred scripture, the Arabic Qurʾān, emerge from western Arabia at a time when the region was religiously fragmented and lacked a clearly established tradition of writing to render the Arabic language?

The studies in this volume, the proceedings of a scholarly conference, address different aspects of this question. They include discussions of the religious concepts found in Arabia in the centuries preceding the rise of Islam, which reflect the presence of polytheism and of several varieties of monotheism including Judaism and Christianity. Also discussed at length are the complexities surrounding the way languages of the Arabian Peninsula were written in the centuries before and after the rise of Islam—including Nabataean and various North Arabian dialects of Semitic—and the gradual emergence of the now-familiar Arabic script from the Nabataean script originally intended to render a dialect of Aramaic.

The religious implications of inscriptions from the pre-Islamic and early Islamic centuries receive careful scrutiny. The early coalescence of the Qurʾān, the kind of information it contains on Christianity and other religions that formed part of the environment in which it first appeared, the development of several key Qurʾānic concepts, and the changing meaning of certain terms used in the Qurʾān also form part of this rich volume.  


List of Figures 
List of Abbreviations and Sigla 
List of Contributors 
Maps of Arabia and Adjacent Regions 
1. Scripts and Scripture in Late Antique Arabia: An Overview. Fred M. Donner.
2. The Oral and the Written in the Religions of Ancient North Arabia. Michael C. A. Macdonald.
3. The Religious Landscape of Northwest Arabia as Reflected in the Nabataean, Nabataeo-Arabic, and Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscriptions. Laïla Nehmé
4. One Wāw to Rule Them All: The Origins and Fate of Wawation in Arabic and Its Orthography. Ahmad Al-Jallad.
5. ʿArabī and aʿjamī in the Qurʾān: The Language of Revelation in Muḥammad’s Ḥijāz. Robert Hoyland.
6. Scripture, Language, and the Jews of Arabia. Gordon D. Newby.
7. Script, Text, and the Bible in Arabic: The Evidence of the Qurʾān. Sidney Griffith.
8. Language of Ritual Purity in the Qurʾān and Old South Arabian. Suleyman Dost.
9. The Invention of a Sacred Book. François Déroche.
10. Script or Scripture? The Earliest Arabic Tombstones in the Light of Jewish and Christian Epitaphs. Kyle Longworth.
11. Religious Warfare and Martyrdom in Arabic Graffiti (70s–110s AH/690s–730s CE). Ilkka Lindstedt.
12. Writing and the Terminological Evolution of the Qurʾānic Sūrah. Adam Flowers.
13. The Adversarial Clansman in Qurʾānic Narrative and Early Muslim Antipatrimonialism. Hamza M. Zafer.

  • Late Antique and Medieval Islamic Near East 3
  • Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 2022
  • ISBN 978-1-61491-073-2
  • Pp. xxii + 287; 55 figures, 10 tables, 2 maps
  • Paperback 7 × 10 in



New from the Oriental Institute: OIS 13. Irrigation in Early States: New Directions














Stephanie Rost, ed., with contributions by Maurits Ertsen; Vernon L. Scarborough and Christian Isendahl; Martin Sterry, David J. Mattingly, and Andrew Wilson; Jason A. Ur; M. Kyle Woodson; Marco Madella and Carla Lancelotti; Stephanie Rost; Robert C. Hunt; Hervé Reculeau; Emily Hammer; Michael J. Harrower; Juan Carlos Moreno García; Li Min, Liu Bin, Wang Ningyuan, Lang Jianfeng, and Wei Yi; Miriam T. Stark; and JoAnn Scurlock, and responses by Sylvia Rodríguez; Carrie Hritz; and McGuire Gibson

Irrigation has long been of interest in the study of the past. Many early civilizations were located in river valleys, and irrigation was of great economic importance for many early states because of the key role it played in producing an agricultural surplus, which was the main source of wealth and the basis of political power for the elites who controlled it. Agricultural surplus was also necessary to maintain the very features of statehood, such as urbanism, full-time labor specialization, state institutions, and status hierarchy.

Yet, the presence of large-scale or complex irrigation systems does not necessarily mean that they were under centralized control. While some early states organized the construction, operation, and maintenance of irrigation works and resolved conflicts related to water distribution, other early governments left most of the management to local farmers and controlled only the surplus.

The cross-cultural studies in this volume reexamine the role of irrigation in early states. Ranging geographically from South America and the southwestern United States to North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, they describe the physical attributes and environments of early irrigation systems; various methods for empirical investigation of ancient irrigation; and irrigation’s economic, sociopolitical, and cosmological dimensions. Through their interdisciplinary perspectives, the authors—all experts in the field of irrigation studies—advance both methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding irrigation in early civilizations.


Introduction. Stephanie Rost.
Part I: The Features of Irrigation
1. A Leak in the Irrigation System May Not Be Seen: How to Connect Agency and Long-Term Effects in Irrigation. Maurits Ertsen.
2. Cross-Cultural Archaeology and the Role of the Tropics in Informing the Present. Vernon L. Scarborough and Christian Isendahl.
3. Foggaras and the Garamantes: Hydraulic Landscapes in the Central Sahara. Martin Sterry, David J. Mattingly, and Andrew Wilson
Part II: The Empirical Investigation of Ancient Irrigation
4. Remote Sensing of Ancient Canal and Irrigation Systems. Jason A. Ur.
5. The Archaeological Excavation and Explanation of Ancient Canal Irrigation Systems in Southern Arizona, USA. M. Kyle Woodson.
6. Archaeobotanical Perspectives on Water Supply and Water Management in the Indus Valley Civilization. Marco Madella and Carla Lancelotti.
7. Written Sources in the Empirical Investigation of Ancient Irrigation: The Operation of the I-sala Irrigation System in the Umma Province in Late Third-Millennium BCE Southern Mesopotamia. Stephanie Rost.
Part III: The Economic Function of Irrigation
8. Irrigation, Food Surplus, and Complexity: A Case from Hohokam, a Prehistoric Neolithic Culture in the American Southwest. Robert C. Hunt.
9. “Opener of Canals, Provider of Abundance and Plenty”: Royal Investment in Large-Scale Irrigation in Second-Millennium BCE Upper Mesopotamia. Hervé Reculeau.
10. Role and Characteristics of Irrigation in the Kingdom of Urartu. Emily Hammer.
Part IV: The Sociopolitical Function of Irrigation
11. A New Interpretation of Irrigation and Ancient State Formation: Political Rhetoric, Social Logic, and Spatial Heterogeneity. Michael J. Harrower.
12. Wells, Small-Scale Private Irrigation, and Agricultural Strategies in the Third and Second Millennia BCE in Egypt. Juan Carlos Moreno García.
13. Water Management at the Liangzhu Prehistoric Mound Center, China. Li Min, Liu Bin, Wang Ningyuan, Lang Jianfeng, and Wei Yi.
Part V: The Cosmological Dimension of Irrigation
14. From the Mekong to the Tonle Sap: Water Management and Cosmology in Cambodia’s Ancient States. Miriam T. Stark.
15. World-Encircling River. JoAnn Scurlock.
16. All Water Is Local. Sylvia Rodríguez.
17. Discussant Remarks. Carrie Hritz.
18. Response. McGuire Gibson.

  • Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 2022
  • ISBN 978-1-61491-071-8
  • Pp. xxx + 452; 99 figures, 45 tables, 4 maps
  • Oriental Institute Seminars 13


Saturday, July 2, 2022

AXON: Greek Historical Inscriptions

Axon Project aims to offer a selection of Greek inscriptions, from the birth of the polis in the Archaic Age to 31 BC. The documents are provided with complete lemma and critical apparatus, information about date and place of discovery, Italian translation, commentary, and updated bibliography. This digital anthology has been selected according to a broader notion of ‘historical’ inscription, which includes those documents relevant not only for their political and institutional contents, but also for the social as well as cultural issues they display.

Specific queries can be carried out with our Search functions, browsing the entire collection and using the interactive Map.

The Project is patronised by Istituto Italiano per la Storia Antica and has an affiliation agreement with Europeana EAGLE Project.

Friday, July 1, 2022

Online LBG: Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität

[First posted in AWOL 7 October 2014, updated 2 July 2022]

LBG: Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität

Fascicles 1-6
Editor: Erich Trapp
This site is the result of a collaboration between the Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität (LBG) published by the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Die Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften) and the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae® (TLG®) at the University of California, Irvine.
The LBG is the foremost lexicographical resource in Byzantine Studies mainly covering the period from the 4th to the 15th century A.D. taken from more than 3,000 texts. Seven fascicles have appeared to date, with one more scheduled to appear in 2016. When completed the dictionary will consist of more than 2,000 printed pages, containing approx. 80,000 lemmata.
In March 2012, the LBG and TLG began conversations about digitizing the existing volumes of LBG and linking them to the TLG texts.  The TLG team (Nick Nicholas, Maria Pantelia and John Salatas) worked on converting the files into XML format and incorporating them into the TLG online system. The first six fascicles have been included in this release covering letters A-P. They can be accessed at:
The LBG was initiated by Erich Trapp – in collaboration with Wolfram Hörandner and Johannes Diethart – in the early 1990s. It became a joint project of the Commission for Byzantine Studies at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Department of Philology at the University of Bonn and the Department of Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies at the University of Vienna, financially supported by the Austrian National Science Fund (FWF).
Astrid Steiner-Weber, Sonja Schönauer and Maria Cassiotou-Panayotopoulos contributed to the project at Bonn University with the financial support of the German Research Foundation (DFG),. The Lexicon is now continued at the Division of Byzantine Research of the Institute for Medieval Research at the Austrian Academy of Sciences under the guidance of Erich Trapp (Vienna/Bonn). Members of the team in Vienna include Carolina Cupane, Andreas Rhoby and Elisabeth Schiffer.
LBG and TLG® wish to acknowledge the contribution of the Austrian Academy of Sciences that has generously supported the creation of the LBG and has now agreed to its online dissemination for the benefit of the scholarly community.
Note: Unlike the majority of the content of the TLG, the LBG, which appeared in October 2014, is freely available for all users to browse and search online, although as of 2022 login seems to be required. The TLG and the Austrian Academy of Sciences Press reserve all rights, however, and no re-use, downloading or copying is permitted. 

Thursday, June 30, 2022

Political Culture in the Cities of the Northern Black Sea Region in the « Long Hellenistic Age »

Dakin, E. (2020) ; Political Culture in the Cities of the Northern Black Sea Region in the « Long Hellenistic Age », New York

Cette thèse est consacrée à la culture politique des cités d’Olbia et Chersonèse à travers l’étude des inscriptions honorifiques, qui emploient une rhétorique particulière du IIIe s. av. J.-C. au règne d’Hadrien. Cette rhétorique témoigne du bon niveau intellectuel de ces élites politiques lié à une bonne formation et l’auteur souligne la compatibilité entre le cadre démocratique et l’existence d’une oligarchie, qui par ses compétences est en mesure d’assumer l’exercice du pouvoir.

Dossier épigraphique, avec quelques inscriptions traduites pour la première fois en anglais.

L’ouvrage en ligne :