Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Computerized Historical Linguistic Database of the Latin Inscriptions of the Imperial Age

Computerized Historical Linguistic Database of the Latin Inscriptions of the Imperial Age
The aim of the project ‘Computerized Historical Linguistic Database of the Latin Inscriptions of the Imperial Age’ is to develop and digitally publish (at http://lldb.elte.hu/) a comprehensive, computerized historical linguistic database that contains and manages the Vulgar Latin material of the Latin inscriptions found in the regions of the Roman Empire (Illyricum, Gallia, Britannia, Germania, Hispania, Italia, Africa, Roma and eastern provinces). This will allow for a more thorough study of the regional changes and differentiation of the Latin language of the Imperial Age in a wider sense and for a multilayer visualization of the discovered structures concerning linguistic geography. The project is going to be realized with the collaboration of the Latin Department of the Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest and the Lendület (‘Momentum’) Research Group for Computational Latin Dialectology of the MTA Research Institute for Linguistics supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office NKFIH (former Hungarian Scientific Research Fund OTKA; no. K 124170 2018-2021, K 108399 2014-2017, K 81864 2010-2013 and K 62032 2006-2009) and by the ‘Momentum’ Program of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (2015-2020).


Publications

Forthcoming

2019

2018

2017

Vágási, T.: Iupiter Dulcenus
Adamik, B.: Potential Greek influence on the Vulgar Latin sound change [b] > [β]: Dialectological evidence from inscriptions
Barta, A.: A Letter to the Underworld: A Research Report on the Curse Tablet Aq-2.
Gonda, A.: The Aquincum–Salona–Aquileia Triangle: Latin language in the Alps–Danube–Adria region
Tantimonaco, S.: Applied Computational Latin Dialectology: first results from the Conventus Pacensis (South Portugal)
Adamik, B.: First International Workshop on Computational Latin Dialectology, April 7–8, 2016, Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
Adamik, B.: A vulgáris latin /b/ és /w/ fúziójának össze-függése a magánhangzóközi /w/ kiesésével a feliratos anyag tükrében
Barta, A.: Levél az alvilágba. Az Aq-2 átoktábla (Előzetes jelentés)
Gonda, A.: Az Aquincum–Aquileia–Salona háromszög: latin nyelv a római birodalom Alpok–Duna–Adria régiójában
Adamik, B.: A palatalizáció szerepe a vulgáris latin [w] > [β] hangváltozásban
Adamik, B.: On the Vulgar Latin merger of /b/ and /w/ and its correlation with the loss of intervocalic /w/: Dialectological evidence from inscriptions

2016

Zelenai, N.: “Libertae isdem coniugi T. Licinius”. Az idem névmás megkövesedésének problematikája
Adamik, B.: The frequency of syncope in the Latin of the Empire: A statistical and dialectological study based on the analysis of inscriptions
Adamik, B.: A vulgáris latin /b/ és /w/ fúziójának esetleges görög hátteréhez: dialektológia a kontaktológia szolgálatában
Adamik, B.: Computerized Historical Linguistic Database of the Latin Inscriptions of the Imperial Age: Search and Charting Modules
Barta, A.: Ito Pater, Eracura és a kézbesítő: Előzetes jelentés egy újabb aquincumi átoktábláról
Barta, A.: New Remarks on the Latin Curse Tablet from Savaria
Gonda, A.: Fehér Bence: Pannonia latin nyelvtörténete. Budapest 2007

2015

Adamik, B.: A számítógépes latin dialektológia régi-új útjain: a vulgáris latin magánhangzó-fúziók, a szinkópa és a hangsúly korrelációja
Adamik, B.: A szinkópa gyakorisága a kései latin nyelvben a feliratok tanúbizonysága alapján
Barta, A.: Ito Pater, Eracura and the Messenger: A Preliminary Report on a New Curse Tablet from Aquincum
Gonda, A.: Aquincum latin nyelve

2014

Adamik, B.: In Search of the Regional Diversification of Latin: Changes of the Declension System According to the Inscriptions
Adamik, B.: A számítógépes latin dialektológia műhelyéből: az esetrendszer átalakulásának területi különbségei a feliratos anyag tükrében
Jekl, Á.: Cambiamenti fonetici nel latino della provincia della Moesia Inferior

2012

Adamik, B.: In Search of the Regional Diversification of Latin: Some Methodological Considerations in Employing the Inscriptional Evidence
Adamik B.: A császárkori feliratok vulgáris latin nyelvi adatainak dialektológiai érvényessége

2010

Adamik, B.: In memoriam Herman József: A Késő latin nyelvtörténeti adattártól a Császárkori latin feliratok számítógépes nyelvtörténeti adatbázisáig

2009

Adamik, B.: In Memoriam József Herman: von der Late Latin Data Base bis zur Computerized Historical Linguistic Database of Latin Inscriptions of the Imperial Age
Barta, A.: The Language of Latin Curse Tablets from Pannonia: A New Curse Tablet from Aquincum
Kiss, S.: Tendances évolutives du latin tardif dans la Britannia romaine (d’aprés les inscriptions)
Fodor, K.: Changes of the Latin Language in Aquitaine as Reflected by the Inscriptions
Ötvös, Zs.: The Latin of the Inscriptions in Narbonensis: Some Phonetic Characteristics
Adamik, B.: Bonae Memoriae József Herman: “Du latin épigraphique au latin provincial” Symposium zur Sprachwissenschaft der Lateinischen Inschriften
Keilschriftartefakte: Untersuchungen zur Materialität von Keilschriftdokumenten
Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva; Schnitzlein, Babette
Dieser Band enthält die Beiträge des Workshops „Materialität des Schreibprozesses“, der am 29. April 2013 am Institut für Altorientalistik in Berlin stattfand. Fragen der Materialität von Keilschriftartefakten sind in den letzten Jahren wieder stärker in den Blick der Forschung gerückt. Die Beiträge dieses Bandes thematisieren an konkreten Beispielen primäre Aspekte der Erstellung von Textdokumenten, die Spuren, die Gebrauch bzw. Out-of-use im Befund hinterlassen, sowie zugehörige methodische und analytische Ansätze.
Cuneiform studies have, in recent years, paid more and more attention to the materiality of inscribed objects. Such was the case at a workshop on the materiality of the writing process which took place on 29 April 2013 at the Freie Universität Berlin. The proceedings of the workshop ‘Keilschriftartefakte. Untersuchungen zur Materialität von Keilschriftdokumenten’ give an idea of the rich potential of this research question. All articles focus on inscribed artefacts made from clay. But coming from different disciplines – archaeology, computer science, cuneiform studies and physics – and being specialized in different periods, the authors approach the subject matter differently. This allows for the presentation of new methods and exiting results. It becomes evident that research on materiality delivers information on a variety of topics, e.g. aethestics of monuments, transfer of knowledge, bilingualism (Akkadian – Aramaic) and archival practices. The contributions to the richly illustrated book are in English and German, each of which is accompanied by an English abstract.
https://refubium.fu-berlin.de/handle/fub188/25690
http://dx.doi.org/10.17169/refubium-25454
urn:nbn:de:kobv:188-refubium-25690-4
ISBN (print): 978-3-935012-16-4
Publisher:
PeWe-Verlag
Publisher Place:
Gladbeck
Department/institution:
Geschichts- und Kulturwissenschaften
Institut für Altorientalistik
Series:
Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient
Series Number:
Band 26

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

New Online from the Oriental Institute: Hittite Dictionary Š, fascicle 4 (-šma/i- A. to šūu)

The Hittite Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (CHD)

Editors:
Petra M. Goedegebuure, Hans G. Güterbock, Harry A. Hoffner, and Theo P. J. van den Hout
S, fascicle 4 (-šma/i- A. to šūu-) (pb) 200 (509–661) 2019 978-1-61491-047-3 $30.00 Purchase Download Terms of Use
S, fascicles 1–4 (sa- to šūu-) (hb)  661 (1–661) 2019 - - (Available 11-01-19)









For an up to date list of all Oriental Institute publications available online see:

Attic Inscriptions Online Update

Attic Inscriptions Online Update:
AIO
21 Oct 2019: We publish today AIUK 4.1 (British Museum, Cult Provisions), with corresponding revised editions on the main site (including Greek texts and images) of IG I3 232 (cult provisions from the City Eleusinion) , 244 (ordinances of Skambonidai) and 246 (sacrificial calendar); AIUK 7 (Chatsworth) and AIUK 8 (Broomhall), with corresponding new entries on the main site (including Greek texts and images): AIUK 7 no. 1 (funerary monument), no. 2 (statue base), no. 3 (decree fragment); AIUK 8 no. 1 (painted funerary stele), no. 2, no. 3, no. 4 (funerary stelai), no. 5 (sarcophagus). We also publish a revision based on autopsy of the 5th cent. sacrificial calendar IG I3 234 (with Greek text) together with an entry for IG II3 4, 1061 (translation); translations of the remaining ephebic dedications of the Hellenistic and Roman periods, IG II3 4, 365425 (overview at 357; the overviews of ephebic inscriptions in the notes to RO 89 and IG II3 4, 329 have also been updated); and the dedications by athletes and other competitors in Panhellenic festivals, IG II3 4, 578630 (overview at 578). Also new are entries for IG I3 520 and 521, which complete the sequence of "donaria publica" from before 403/2 BC, IG I3 501525. We have updated our entries for public dedications to account for the Addenda in IG II3 4, fasc. 3 (2019), pp. 683-87. For a full list of today's 123 new items see Publication 21 October 2019.

Institute for the Study of the Ancient World Video Lecture Archive

 [First posted in AWOL 11 May 2017, updated (new URLs) 22 October 2019]

Institute for the Study of the Ancient World Video Lecture Archive
Videos of past events at ISAW are now available in the Video Archive found on our Events page. We will continue to add more recordings as they become available.
The following public lectures are available to watch online:
The Migrations of Islamic Science in Renaissance EuropeExhibition Lecture
Robert Morrison, Bowdoin College
May 10, 2018
Plato's advice to Alexander: Amir Khusraw's 'Mirror of Alexander' (1299)
Exhibition Lecture
Richard Stoneman, University of Exeter
May 3, 2018
Alexander to Iskandar: Paintings from Persian and Turkish Manuscripts
Exhibition Lecture
Ayşin Yoltar-Yıldırım, Brooklyn Museum
April 12, 2018
Savoring the Past: The Archaeology of Food and Foodways
Guest Lecture
Katheryn Twiss, Stony Brook University
March 29, 2018

Revisiting Harappan Iconography: Seals, Sealing and Tablets as Small Windows onto the Indus Valley Civilization
Faculty Lecture
Marta Ameri, Visiting Research Scholar, ISAW
February 20, 2018

Fragments of Greek Science in a Palimpsest from Bobbio
Faculty Lecture
Alexander Jones, Leon Levy Director and Professor of the History of the Exact Sciences in Antiquity, ISAW
February 22, 2018

The Silent Fall of an Empire in 1200 BCE
Faculty Lecture
Lorenzo d'Alfonso, Associate Professor of Western Asian Archaeology and History, ISAW
December 7, 2017
The History of Eighth-century Khotan as Seen from Khotanese Documents
Faculty Lecture
Zhan Zhang, ISAW Visiting Research Scholar
December 5, 2017
The Prehistory of Crete
Exhibition Lecture
Malcolm H. Wiener, Aegean Prehistorian
November 30, 2017
Ancient World Research and Tools in Synergy
Guest Lecture
Mark Depauw, University of Leuven
November 13, 2017
Theology of Liberation in the Second Millennium BCE: The Hurrian Song of Liberation
Faculty Lecture
Eva von Dassow, ISAW Visiting Research Scholar
October 24, 2017

Spying on Antiquity: Declassified US Intelligence Satellite Imagery and Near Eastern Archaeology
AIA Lecture
Jason Ur, Harvard University
October 23, 2017
Chinese Bronze Age Economics: A Multi-sited Approach to Shang Dynasty Bone Crafting
Faculty Lecture
Roderick B. Campbell, Associate Professor of East Asian Archaeology and History, ISAW
October 17, 2017

Conserving Cairo 1882-2012
ARCE Lecture
Nicholas Warner, American University in Cairo
October 12, 2017
There Goes the Neighborhood: Gentrification and Urban Redevelopment in Roman North Africa
Faculty Lecture
J. Andrew Dufton, ISAW Visiting Assistant Professor
October 10, 2017

HERE
Exhibition Lecture
Elizabeth Price, Artist, Restoring the Minoans
October 5, 2017
Water in Sumer
Faculty Lecture
Stephanie Rost, ISAW Visiting Assistant Professor
September 26, 2017

Architectural Conservation in Egypt’s Western Desert: The Amheida Project
Guest Lecture
Nicholas Warner, American University in Cairo
September 18, 2017
A Paradise in the Caucasus: An Achaemenid Residence in Azerbaijan
Guest Lecture
Florian Knauss, Director of Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek, München
May 2, 2017 

Excavating the Ancient City of TeneaGuest Lecture
Dr. Eleni Korka, Director General of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage, Ministry of Culture and Sports, Athens
April 21, 2017 

A Portable Cosmos: The Antikythera MechanismExhibition Lecture
Alexander Jones, Leon Levy Director Professor of the History of the Exact Sciences in Antiquity, ISAW
April 6, 2017

New Term Excavations at Kültepe: The First International Trade Center in Anatolia
Guest Lecture
Fikri Kulakoglu, Ankara University
March 28, 2017 
Globalising the Mediterranean's Iron Age
Guest Lecture
Tamar Hodos, University of Bristol
March 20, 2017
Medicine and the Humanities from Ancient to ModernFaculty Lecture
Claire Bubb, Assistant Professor/ Faculty Fellow of Classical Literature and Science, ISAW
March 9, 2017

Time and Cosmos in Greco-Roman AstrologyExhibition Lecture
Stephan Heilen, University of Osnabrück
February 27, 2017

Fantastical Space and Heroic Journeys in Mesopotamian Literature Faculty Lecture
Gina Konstantopoulos, ISAW Visiting Assistant Professor
February 21, 2017 

Enigmatic Sites and Headless Nubians: Exploring the Eastern Desert of Late Roman EgyptARCE Lecture
Colleen M. Darnell, University of Hartford
February 2, 2017 
Geographical Portable Sundials: Reliable Instruments or Roman Fashion Statements?Exhibition LectureRichard Talbert, University of North CarolinaJanuary 26, 2017
Weeks, Months, and Years in Greek and Roman CalendarsExhibition LectureDaryn Lehoux, Queen's UniversityDecember 1, 2016
Imhotep Comes Forth by Day
ARCE Lecture
Janice Kamrin, Metropolitan Museum of Art
November 17, 2016
Fruits of the Silk Road
VRS Lecture
Robert Spengler, Visiting Research Scholar, ISAW
November 15, 2016
Ancient Sundials: Art, Technology, and Culture
Exhibition Lecture
James Evans, University of Puget Sound
November 10, 2016
A People Without a Name or, Who Were the Hittites?
Tenth Annual Leon Levy Lecture
Theo van den Hout, Arthur and Joann Rasmussen Professor of Western Civilization and of Hittite and Anatolian Languages, Oriental Institute of the University of ChicagoNovember 3, 2016
Decrepit Rome, your morals disintegrate, your walls collapse!Critique of Rome in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages
VRS Lecture
Maya Maskarinec, Visiting Research Scholar, ISAW
October 25, 2016
Death and Taxes?
Economy, Society and the Imperial State in Babylonia in the Sixth Century BCE
Michael Jursa, Professor of Assyriology at the University of Vienna, Corresponding Fellow of the Austrian Academy of Sciences
September 29, 2016
Herodes Atticus and the Greco-Roman World: Imperial Cosmos, Cosmic Allusions, Art and Culture in his Estate in Southern PeloponneseExhibition Lecture
Georgios Spyropoulos, Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sport, Directorate General of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage, Athens
September 13, 2016
Silk Roads and Steppe Roads of Medieval China: History Unearthed from Tombs, IV
A Tang Dynasty Ally in War and Ritual: The Tomb of Pugu Yitu (635-678) in Mongolia
Rostovtzeff Lecture Series
Jonathan K. Skaff, Visiting Research Scholar, ISAW
April 19, 2016
Silk Roads and Steppe Roads of Medieval China: History Unearthed from Tombs, III
Sogdians or Borderlanders?, Part II: Death Rituals Revealed in Tombs
Rostovtzeff Lecture Series
Jonathan K. Skaff, Visiting Research Scholar, ISAWApril 12, 2016
Silk Roads and Steppe Roads of Medieval China: History Unearthed from Tombs, II
Sogdians or Borderlanders?, Part I: Lives Revealed in Epitaphs
Rostovtzeff Lecture Series
Jonathan K. Skaff, Visiting Research Scholar, ISAWApril 5, 2016
Silk Roads and Steppe Roads of Medieval China: History Unearthed from Tombs, I
A Slave Road? Sogdian Merchants and Foreign Slaves at Turfan
Rostovtzeff Lecture Series
Jonathan K. Skaff, Visiting Research Scholar, ISAWMarch 29, 2016
Memory, Tradition, and Image Production in Ancient Mesopotamia
Faculty Lecture
Beate Pongratz-Leisten, Professor of Ancient Near Eastern Studies, ISAW
March 24, 2016

Open Access Journal: Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents Newsletter

[First posted in AWOL 1 November 2009. Updated (additional issues) 22 October 2019 (new URL)]

Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents Newsletter
Home
The Centre's Newsletter, published biannually in spring and autumn, offers news of events and activities at CSAD. The newsletter can be read or downloaded either in HTML format or as an Adobe Acrobat document. Copies of the Acrobat Reader can be downloaded directly from Adobe.
The following issues are available:

Newsletter no. 1 (Winter 1995/96)

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Newsletter no. 2 (Spring 1996)

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Newsletter no. 3 (Autumn 1996)

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Newsletter no. 4 (Summer 1997)

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Newsletter no. 5 (Autumn 1997)

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Newsletter no. 6 (Summer 1998)

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Newsletter no. 7 (Spring 1999)

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Newsletter no. 8 (Autumn 1999)

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Newsletter no. 9 (Winter 2002)

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Newsletter no. 10 (Autumn 2002)

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Newsletter no. 11 (Winter 2004/5)

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Newsletter no. 12 (Winter 2009/10)

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Newsletter no. 13 (Summer 2010)

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Newsletter no. 14 (Winter 2010/11)

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Newsletter no. 15 (Winter 2011/12)

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Newsletter no. 16 (Spring 2013)

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Newsletter no. 17 (Spring 2014)

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Newsletter no. 18 (Spring 2015)

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Newsletter no. 19 (Spring 2016)

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Newsletter no. 20 (Winter 2016/17)

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Newsletter no. 21 (Spring 2018)
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Newsletter no. 22 (Autumn 2018)
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Newsletter no. 23 (Spring 2019)
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Newsletter no. 24 (Autumn 2019)
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Monday, October 21, 2019

4 Enoch: The Online Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism, and Christian and Islamic Origin

 [First posted in AWOL 23 November 2009. Updated 20 October, 2019]

4 Enoch: The Online Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism, and Christian and Islamic Origin
 https://biblicalstudiesonline.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/4enoch.jpg?w=700
4 Enoch: The Online Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism and Christian Origins is an online research tool for the study of Second Temple Judaism and Christian Origins, promoted by the Enoch Seminar and edited by Gabriele Boccaccini.

Overview

Only gradually and not without pain, the field of Second Temple Judaism and Christian Origins has emerged in modern times as an autonomous field of research. In the past the major obstacle was the intrusion of canonical and religious boundaries; today the field suffers from an unprecedented explosion of studies that results in a growing fragmentation into sub-areas of specialization. Since it has become virtually impossible to master the entire field, even more urgent are the circulation of ideas, the sharing of information, and the mutual listening to each other.

The Enoch Seminar were born with the goal of providing a common forum to all specialists of the field. Now a new tool is added – 4 Enoch: The Online Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism. At the 2009 Enoch Seminar in Naples, the General Assembly recommended the creation of an online tool that would enhance the scholarship of the Seminar participants as well as aide scholars of Second Temple Judaism throughout the world. Gabriele Boccaccini, the Chairperson of the Seminar, agreed to contribute 20 years of his work on the history of research in the field of Second Temple Judaism, which had already produced in 1992 a printed bibliography – Portraits of Middle Judaism in Scholarship and Arts (1992 Boccaccini), book. Boccaccini’s vast bibliographies, database, and personal notes encompassing scholarship and the arts comprise the core of 4 Enoch: The Online Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism.

The name 4 Enoch was chosen as a tribute to the ancient patriarch who has become the symbol of our common goal to tear down the canonical, linguistic and religious walls of separation that in the past have largely divided our field of research. The wish is to provide common ground for scholars all around the world to share the results of their research and listen to each other and to the voices from the past and make it easier to specialists and students to navigate in a field that is becoming more and more complex and fragmented in different subfields of specialization.

4 Enoch offers a comprehensive introduction to scholarly research in Second Temple Judaism and Christian Origins, beginning with the Babylonian Exile in 586 BCE to the Bar-Kokhba Revolt in 135 CE. It includes biographies of scholars, as well as abstracts of scholarly works in the field of Second Temple Judaism, from the early 16th century to the present. The Encyclopedia also includes fictional material (art, literature, music, cinema). As the fertile soil for both Christianity and the rabbinic period, Second Temple Judaism has inspired not only scholars but also artists, whose creations have profoundly affected our understanding of the period. 4 Enoch is the only online tool to address the vital connection between scholarship and the arts, whether the arts anticipate, interact with, or stem from developments in the academic community.
Spanning 500 years of research and creativity, 4 Enoch covers everything from Contexta populi Iudaici historia (1548 Eber), book to Beyond the Qumran Community (2010 Collins), book, and from Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple (1512 Raphael), art to The Handmaid and the Carpenter (2006 Berg), novel. Although 4 Enoch is still in its nascent stage, the goal of its Editors is to create the most comprehensive history of research tool available to the scholars who comprise the field of Second Temple Judaism and Christian Origins.
The Editors of 4 Enoch are committed to removing the canonical, linguistic and religious walls of separation that have divided scholars of Second Temple Judaism for so long. The tool itself is decidedly historical and secular in orientation; it has no canonical, confessional, religious or denominational preferences. It invites scholars from every country and tradition to participate freely and to benefit from its bibliographic resources. It is aptly named after the ancient patriarch and patron saint of the Enoch Seminar, whose three ancient books brought together traditions shared by both Christians and Jews.

By summarizing the vast literature and synthesizing it for the scholarly community, 4 Enoch provides the opportunity for scholars around the world to share the results of their research with their colleagues and anyone else who is interested in Second Temple Judaism and Christian Origins. 4 Enoch resurrects voices from past centuries, introducing the giants of a past age to each new generation of scholars; and provides a glimpse to the work of national schools often neglected or even virtually unknown due to linguistic barriers. Specialists and students will be allowed to navigate a field that is increasingly complex and fragmented into sub-fields of specialization. The goal is to produce more substantial scholarship and a greater respect for our common heritage. 4 Enoch: The Online Encyclopedia will evolve in three phases. The beginning phase of 4 Enoch will be the creation of thousands of entries for those scholars, authors and artists who have contributed to our understanding of the period or addressed the period in some significant way. The focus during the first phase is on history of research and secondary scholarship. The second phase will focus more on primary sources and will include entries on the ancient documents of Second Temple Judaism, historical and fictional characters, historical events, archaeological sites, epigraphic data, numismatics and cultural phenomena. The final phase will include scholarly articles written by current Second Temple specialists.

4 Enoch is freely open to the participation of scholars from around the world. There are already more than 60 registered authors from six continents making contributions to its growing database. In the near future the 4 Enoch team will appoint additional associate editors for major linguistic groups as well as major subjects of research. The choice of the wiki program reflects 4 Enoch’s desire for a truly collective enterprise and for contributions from scholars and graduate students from around the globe. It also allows the registered authors to add abstracts, reviews, and interacting biographical and scholarly notes not found in bibliographical databases, such as the Bibliographie bibliques informatisée de Lausanne (BiBIL) or WorldCat.

There is a final point that the Editors want to make in this age that is increasingly dominated by the presence of the Web. We sometimes complain (and not without reason) about the low quality and unreliability of some very popular computerized tools, which nonetheless our students and we must use every day. Our challenge is to demonstrate that a collective work can be accomplished without compromising its integrity and high standards. On the contrary, the sharing of individual wisdom from scholars all around the world can only result in mutual enrichment and lay the foundation for new accomplishments in our field.
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