Türkiye Sualtı Kültür Mirası Sanal Müze Projesi Başkent Üniversitesi Kültür ve Sanat Araştırmaları Merkezi (BÜKSAM) ve Sualtı Araştırmaları Derneği (SAD) tarafından ortak olarak 2007-2008 yıllarında gerçekleştirilmiştir.
Proje, TÜBİTAK Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Projelerini Destekleme Programı kapsamındadır. Proje kapsamında yapılan araştırma dalışları T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı'nın izniyle yürütülmüştür.
Antik çağın en önemli deniz ticareti güzergahı üzerinde olan Türkiye'nin güney kıyıları, özellikle de Kaş-Kekova arasında yeralan bölge, son yıllarda dalış turizminin artması nedeniyle büyük oranda tahrip edilmektedir. Yitirilmekte olan bu kültür mirasının korunmasına yönelik disiplinlerarası bir araştırmacı grubu ile gerçekleştirilen projenin en büyük hedefi bölge halkının ve dalış gruplarının kültür mirasının korunmasına ilişkin bilinçlendirilmesi, bölgede Akdeniz ticaret ağına ilişkin bilgi sunan arkeolojik buluntuların (çoğunlukla amforalar) yerinde belgelenmesi ve görüntülenmesi, sualtı batıklarının araştırılması ve envanterlenmesi, sanal ortamda müzeleştirilmesi, arkeolojik ve kültürel tahribatın engellenmesi için yapılan çalışmalardan oluşmuştur.
İnsanlık tarihinin en erken batığı olan Akdeniz ticaretini ve kültürlerarası ilişkileri sunan M.Ö.14. yüzyıla tarihlenen Uluburun Batığı Kaş'da bulunmuştur. Institute of Nautical Archaeology, Cemal Pulak tarafından 1984-94 yılları arasında kazılmıştır. Uluburun gemisine benzer bir gemi proje ortaklarınca yapılıp Kaş, Hidayet koyunda batırılmıştır, ve bu alan deneysel arkeoloji alanı olarak, dünyanın ilk sualtı ARKEOPARK'ı olarak 29 Ekim 2006'da proje ortakları tarafından kurulmuştur. ARKEOPARK alanının uzaktan erişimli sualtı görüntülemeleri, 360 derece dolaşımı ve bu görüntülerin sanal müze uygulamaları projenin ana çalışmasını oluşturur.
Gelişen bilgi teknolojileriyle yeni müze anlayışı, 'sanal müze' adı altında, günümüz teknolojilerini de kullanarak sadece bulunduğu mekana bağlı olmayan web üzerinden erişimli bilgi akışı sağlayan bu sistem Proje sayesinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. ARKEOPARK alanı sualtı arkeolojisi için önemli bir eğitim alanıdır. Karelaj ve içinde yeralan buluntular (amforalar) arkeoloji öğrencileri için bir batığın yerinde “in situ” konumunu çalışma için ideal bir alan oluşturmaktadır. Deniz dibi ve saptanan batıklara ait diğer verilerin edinilmesi de araştırmanın ikincil ürünlerini oluşturmuştur.
Tuesday, July 31, 2012
Türkiye Sualtı Kültür Mirası Sanal Müzesi: Kaş Arkeopark Pilot Projesi
Safaitic Database Online: Inscriptions and Rock Drawings from the Basalt Desert Rescue Survey
Welcome to the Ancient Arabia: Languages and Cultures database of inscriptions relating to the Basalt Desert Rescue Survey.
This database contains 3420 records of individual inscriptions along with over 6000 related photographs and 3000 tracings.
To search the database please click on the button above labelled 'Search the Database'.
Part of the Ancient Arabia: Languages and Cultures project at the Khalili Research Centre, University of Oxford
ASOR Annual Meeting Academic and Business Meetings Schedule
Thinking Through Thucydides (T3)
The ancient Greek historian Thucydides famously claimed that his work would be ‘a possession for all time’: not just the history of a single war between the Athenians and the Spartans, but a guide to the way that the world works, and especially to politics and war. He was right. Over the last two hundred years, Thucydides has been one of the most frequently quoted ancient writers. His ideas have influenced historians, politicians, international relations experts and soldiers; all agree that his work is useful and important.
Thucydides does not offer simple lessons, but a training course in analysis and deliberation. He demands that his readers follow his narrative of events and think about how things could have turned out differently; he asks them to listen to opposing arguments and to weigh up the issues – and then to think about how those arguments relate what actually happened. He shows how the world is complicated – and how we can make sense of that complexity. In brief, he aims to help his readers to develop the skills that every citizen of a democracy needs.
The lessons that Thucydides offers are needed today more than ever. The problem is that his work is complex and difficult, even in the original Greek – and of course most readers have to rely on translations, often of dubious quality. The aim of the T3 project (Thinking Through Thucydides, or Thinking, Through Thucydides) is to make key passages from Thucydides' work accessible to as many people as possible, setting his words in context and explaining significant points. These passages can then serve as a resource for thinking about the world and our place in it, a starting-point for debate about some of the most vital issues that face us today.
The project is at a very early stage of development; on this webpage you will find one sample passage of Thucydides (II.43, from the Funeral Oration) along with contextual material and key questions to discuss, to show you what we have in mind. We plan to develop this resource in partnership with schools, so that it can serve as a resource for the study of both Classical Civilisation and Citizenship, but we hope that this will be of interest to everyone. In due course we will be introducing a blog where you can post your comments and suggestions, and get involved in debates about the significance of passages; in the meantime, if you have any comments, or if you would like to be involved in developing this project, please contact Neville Morley (n.d.g.morley(at)bris.ac.uk).
Monday, July 30, 2012
Tell Leilan Project
From 1979 to the present, the Yale University Tell Leilan Project has been excavating at Tell Leilan, Syria ( Figure 1 ) and conducting systematic archaeological surface surveys in the Tell Leilan region. Tell Leilan is one of the largest archaeological sites in Syria and was one of the most important cities in Northern Mesopotamia during the second and third millennia BC, when it was known as Šehna and Šubat-Enlil. Today, the ancient city walls still rise five to fifteen meters above plains of northeastern Syria, enclosing an area of 90 hectares, nearly a square kilometer. The 15 hectare "Acropolis", the oldest and highest part of the site, founded about 5,000 BC, dominates the surrounding 65 hectare "Lower Town," which like the city wall dates to the urbanization of this settlement at ca. 2600 BC...
Kaniewski, David, Elise van Campo and Harvey Weiss 2012 "Drought is a recurring challenge in the Middle East," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.10: 3862-3867
[ PDF - 1.5 MB ]
Kaniewski, D., E. Van Campo, K. Van Lerberghe, T. Boiy, K. Vaansteenhuyse, G. Jans, K. Nys, H. Weiss, C. Morhange, T. Otto and J. Bretschneider 2011 "The Sea Peoples, from cuneiform tablets to carbon dating," PLoS ONE 6(6), e20232. doi:10.1371
[ PDF - 1 MB ]
Kaniewski, D., E. Van Campo, E. Paulissen, H. Weiss, J. Bakker , I. Rossignol. and K. Van Lerberghe K. 2011 "The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in coastal Syria inferred from pollen-derived palaeoclimatic patterns," Global and Planetary Change 78: 178-187 Kaniewski, D., E. Van Campo, E. Paulissen, H. Weiss, T. Otto, J. Bakker, I. Rossignol and K. Van Lerberghe 2011 "Medieval coastal Syrian vegetation patterns in the principality of Antioch," The Holocene 21(2): 251-262
[ PDF - 1 MB ]
Weiss, Harvey 2010 "Altered Trajectories: The Intermediate Bronze Age," in A. Killebrew and M. Steiner, eds., The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant. Oxford University Press.
[ PDF - 8 MB ]
Kaniewski, D., E. Paulissen, E. Van Campo, H. Weiss, T. Otto, J. Bretschneider, and K. Van Lerberghe 2010 "Late second-early first millennium BC abrupt climate changes in coastal Syria and their possible significance for the history of the Eastern Mediterranean," Quaternary Research 74: 207-215.
[ PDF - 1.0 MB ]
Ristvet, Lauren and Harvey Weiss 2010 "Micro- and Macro-Contexts of the Tell Leilan Eastern Lower Town Palace Archives," in Jesper Eidem, The Royal Archives from Tell Leilan. Old Babylonian Letters and Treaties. H. Weiss, ed., Yale Tell Leilan Research 2. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. xi-xlix.
[ PDF - 3.0 MB ]
Fig 1. Topo Plan [ JPEG - 387 KB ]
Fig 2. N Mesop 1800 [ JPEG - 195 KB ]
Fig 3. Eastern Lower Town Palace plan [ JPEG - 322 KB ]
Fig 4. Eastern Lower Town Palace isometric [ JPEG - 247 KB ]
Fig 14. Tablet excavation in process, Building Level 2 [ JPEG - 929 KB ]
Fig 15. Administrative tablets in situ, Room 22 floor, Building Level 2 [ JPEG - 851 KB ]
Fig 18. Leilan Region Survey Period IIc [ JPEG - 283 KB ]
Fig 19. Leilan Region Survey Period I [ JPEG - 324 KB ]
Fig 20. Possible Nomadic Encampments of Period I [ JPEG - 660 KB ]
Fig 21. Paleoclimate proxy records for 4.2kaBP and 5.2kaBP abrupt climate change events [ JPEG - 535 KB]
Risvet, L. 2008 "Legal and archaeological territories of the second millennium BC in northern Mesopotamia," Antiquity, 82 (2008). pp. 585-599.
[ PDF - 2.0 MB ]
Risvet, L. 2007 "The Third Millennium City Wall at Tell Leilan, Syria: Identity, Authority and Urbanism," in J. Bretschneider, J. Driessen and K. Vanlerberghe, eds., Monumental Public Architecrure in the Bronze Age Near East and Aegean. Leuven: Peters, pp. 183-212.
[ PDF - 509.0 KB ]
F. de Lillis Forest, L. Milano and L. Mori 2007 "The Akkadian Occupation in the Northwest Area of the Tell Leilan Acropolis", KASKAL Volume 4, 2007.
[ PDF - 9.3 MB ]
Staubwasser, Michael and Harvey Weiss 2006 "Holocene Climate and Cultural Evolution in Late Prehistoric-Early Historic West Asia," in M. Staubwasser and H. Weiss, eds., Holocene Climate and Cultural Evolution in Late Prehistoric-Early Historic West Asia. Quaternary Research (special issue) Volume 66, Issue 3 (November), pp. 372-387.
[ PDF - 2.0 MB ]
Table 1 [ JPEG - 136 KB ]
Risvet, L. 2005 "Settlement, Economy, and Society in the Tell Leilan Region, Syria, 3000-1000 BC," PhD Dissertation, University of Cambridge, July 22, 2005.
[ PDF - 23.9 MB ]
Ristvet, L. and H. Weiss 2005 "The Häbür Region in the Late Third and Early Second Millennium B.C.," in Winfried Orthmann, ed., The History and Archaeology of Syria. Vol. 1. Saarbrucken: Saarbrucken Verlag.
[ PDF - 3.2 MB ]
Fig 1. Ancient North Mesop map [ PDF - 172 KB ]
Fig 2. Habur surveys map [ PDF - 248 KB ]
Fig 3. Van Oman Soreq [ PDF - 80 KB ]
Fig 4. LRS Period IIb [ PDF - 100 KB ]
Fig 5. Period IIc [ PDF - 112 KB ]
Fig 6. Period I [ PDF - 124 KB ]
Fig 7. LRS Histogram [ PDF - 48 KB ]
Fig 8. Tell Taya Stratigraphy [ PDF - 516 KB ]
Fig 9. Sagir Bazar Old Babylonian closely packed domestic quarters [ PDF - 72 KB ]
Fig 10. Lyonnet survey [ PDF - 128 KB ]
Fig 11. Baidar survey [ PDF - 168 KB ]
Fig 12. Acrop Pd I BL II facade [ JPEG - 260 KB ]
Fig 13. Lower Town Palace East isometric [ PDF - 1.6 KB ]
Fig 14. LRS Period 0 [ PDF - 108 KB ]
Fig 15. LRS 186 Farfara [ PDF - 72 KB ]
Francesca deLillis-Forrest, Lucia Mori, Thomas Guilderson and Harvey Weiss 2004 Walter Sommerfeld, Alfonso Archi and Harvey Weiss 2004 Ristvet, Lauren, Thomas Guilderson and Harvey Weiss 2004 Weiss, Harvey 2003 Ninevite 5 Periods and Processes. In The origins of North Mesopotamian civilization: Ninevite 5 chronology, economy, society. Brussels: Brepols. E. Rova and H. Weiss, editors.
[ PDF - 1.7 MB ]
Fig 8. Ninevite 5 Absolute Chronology [ PDF - 12.0 KB ]
Fig 10. Tell Leilan Survey Period IV--LC 5 (ca. 3400-3000 BC) [ PDF - 132.0 KB ]
Fig 11. Tell Leilan Survey Period IV--Southern Uruk (ca. 3400-3000 BC) [ PDF - 132.0 KB ]
Fig 12. Tell Leilan Survey Period IIIa (ca. 3000-2900 BC) [ PDF - 175.0 KB ]
Fig 13. 5.2 ka BP Abrupt Climate Change [ PDF - 84.0 KB ]
Blackman, M. James 2003 Chemical Characterization of Tablets, Sealing Clays, and Source Clays from Tell Leilan, Syria In The origins of North Mesopotamian civilization: Ninevite 5 chronology, economy, society. Brussels: Brepols. E. Rova and H. Weiss, editors.
[ PDF - 744.0 KB ]
Wetterstrom, Wilma 2003 Ninevite 5 Period Agriculture at Tell Leilan: Preliminary Results In The origins of North Mesopotamian civilization: Ninevite 5 chronology, economy, society. Brussels: Brepols. E. Rova and H. Weiss, editors.
[ PDF - 984 KB ]
van Gijn, Annelou 2003 The Ninevite 5 Chipped Stone Assemblage from Tell Leilan: Preliminary Results In The origins of North Mesopotamian civilization: Ninevite 5 chronology, economy, society. Brussels: Brepols. E. Rova and H. Weiss, editors.
[ PDF - 1.2 MB ]
Parayre, Dominique 2003 The Ninevite 5 Sequence of Glyptic at Tell Leilan In The origins of North Mesopotamian civilization: Ninevite 5 chronology, economy, society. Brussels: Brepols. E. Rova and H. Weiss, editors.
[ PDF - 2.1 MB ]
Rova, Elena 2003 Glyptic Evidence 1993-1999 from Tell Leilan IIa-IIb Periods
[ HTML ]
Weiss, Harvey 2002 "Akkadian Empire" in Peter Peregrine and Melvin Ember, eds., Encyclopedia of Prehistory. vol 8. HRAF / Kluwer.
[ PDF - 500 KB ]
Weiss, Harvey, Francesca deLillis, Dominique deMoulins, Jesper Eidem, Thomas Guilderson, Ulla Kasten, Torben Larsen, Lucia Mori, Lauren Ristvet, Elena Rova, and Wilma Wetterstrom 2002 Revising the contours of history at Tell Leilan. Annales Archeologiques Arabes Syriennes, Cinquantenaire. vol. 45, pp. 59-74.
[ PDF - 128.0 KB ]
Fig. 7. Table 1. Cultivated taxa within Tell Leilan flotation samples (W. Wetterstrom) [ PDF - 8.0 KB ]
Fig. 8. Period II-III pooled paleobotanical samples (W. Wetterstrom) [ PDF - 8.0 KB ]
Fig. 9. Periods IIIa-b, IIId, IIa, IIb paleobotanical samples (W. Wetterstrom) [ PDF - 8.0 KB ]
Fig. 10. Leilan IIb Acropolis last floor weighted average, calibrated, 8 barley (1 harvest) radiocarbon samples [ PDF - 16.0 KB ]
Fig. 11. Leilan regional survey, period IIb [ PDF - 216.0 KB ]
Fig. 12. Leilan regional survey, period "IIc" [ PDF - 212.0 KB ]
Fig. 13. Leilan regional survey, period I [ PDF - 224.0 KB ]
Weiss, Harvey and Raymond S. Bradley 2001 What drives societal collapse? Science, 291: 609-610.
[ PDF - 2.1 MB ]
deMenocal, Peter B. 2001 Cultural responses to climate change during the late Holocene. Science, 292: 667-673.
[ PDF - 748.0 KB ]
Weiss, Harvey 2000 Beyond the younger Dryas: Collapse as adaptation to abrupt climate change in ancient West Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean. In Environmental disaster and the archaeology of human response, Edited by Garth Bawden and Richard Martin Reycraft. Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers, No. 7: 75-95.
[ PDF - 8.1 MB ]
Ristvet, Lauren and Harvey Weiss 2000 Imperial responses to environmental dynamics at the late Third Millennium Tell Leilan. Orient Express, 4:94-99.
[ PDF - 1.2 MB ]
Cullen, H. M., P.B. deMenocal, S. Hemming, G. Hemming, F. H. Brown, T. Guilderson, F. Sirocko 2000 Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: Evidence from the deep sea. Geology, 28: 379-382.
[ PDF - 388.0 KB ]
Weiss, Harvey 1996 Rosen-Weiss Letter-Rejoinder. The Sciences
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Weiss, Harvey 1994 Desert Storm. The Sciences
[ PDF - 2.3 MB ]
Weiss, Harvey, M.A. Courty, W. Wellerstrom, F. Guichard, L. Senior, R. Meadow, and A. Currow 1993 The genesis and collapse of Third Millennium north Mesopotamian Civilization. Science, 291: 995-1088.
[ PDF - 7.0 MB ]
Weiss, Harvey and Marie-Agnès Courty 1993 The Genesis and Collapse of the Akkadian Empire, in M. Liverani, ed., Akkad the First World Empire: Structure, Ideology, Traditions. Padua: Sargon. pp. 131-155.
[ PDF - 5.5 MB ]
Senior, L. and Weiss, Harvey 1992 Tell Leilan sila-bowls and the Akkadian Reorganization of Subarian Agro-production. Orient-Express, 1992.2:16-24.
[ PDF - 1 MB ]
Weiss, Harvey 1990 Tell Leilan 1989: New Data for Mid-Third Millennium Urbanization and State Formation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin, 122:193-218.
[ PDF - 1.5 MB ]
Weiss, Harvey 1985 Tell Leilan on the Habur Plains of Syria, Biblical Archaeologist, 48.1: 5-34.
[ PDF - 8.5 MB ]
Weiss, Harvey and T. Cuyler Young, Jr. 1975 Merchants of Susa: Godin V and plateau-lowland relations in the late Fourth Millennium BC. Iran, 10:1-17.
[ PDF - 16.5 MB ]
The FILOLOGÍA NEOTESTAMENTARIA journal is the result of initiative taken at the Chair of Greek Philology of the Department of Antiquities of the University of Córdoba, Spain. Within its Scope lies every aspect of New Testament Greek philology, namely textual criticism, grammar, semantics, lexicography and eventually semiotics and its relationship with Classical or Hellenistic Greek. It is published in Córdoba (Spain) by EDICIONES EL ALMENDRO DE CÓRDOBA, SL once a year (September).
See the full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies
Journal of the Association for History and Computing
This journal is sponsored by the American Association for History and Computing (AAHC), organized at a conference held in Cincinnati in January 1996. The AAHC aspires to promote and develop interest in the use of computers in all types of historical study at every level, in both teaching and research. We believe that computers and computing are rapidly changing important elements of the work of historians and students of history, constituting a major transformation in the way knowledge is created and communicated. A major goal of this journal is to help define useful standards to maximize the utility of computers in historical studies.
We welcome contributions from those interested in issues or resources related to history and computing. This journal contains peer-reviewed articles intended as a contribution to this field, and some peer-reviewed works-in-progress intended to solicit thoughtful criticism.
See the full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies
Sunday, July 29, 2012
Codepoints.net is dedicated to all the characters, that are defined in the Unicode Standard. Theoretically, these should be all characters ever used. In practice Unicode has 110181 codepoints defined at the moment, mapping characters from Egyptian Hieroglyphs to Dingbats and Symbols.
All codepoints are arranged in 16 so-called planes. These planes are further divided into several blocks with Basic Latin being the first one. You can browse one by one by starting with the first codepoint, 0000 or search for a specific character. If you’re not fully sure, try “Find My Codepoint”, to narrow down the candidates. Or maybe you are more daring and want a random codepoint?
The content on this website reflects the information found in
The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 6.1.0, (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2012. ISBN 978-1-936213-02-3)
which happens to be the most relevant version of the Unicode Standard as of June, 2012.
Arabic Imperial Aramaic Armenian Avestan Balinese Bamum Batak Bengali Bopomofo Brahmi Braille Buginese Buhid Chakma Canadian Aboriginal Carian Cham Cherokee Coptic Cypriot Cyrillic Devanagari Deseret Egyptian Hieroglyphs Ethiopic Georgian Glagolitic Gothic Greek Gujarati Gurmukhi Hangul Han Hanunoo Hebrew Hiragana Katakana Or Hiragana Old Italic Javanese Kayah Li Katakana Kharoshthi Khmer Kannada Kaithi Tai Tham Lao Latin Lepcha Limbu Linear B Lisu Lycian Lydian Mandaic Meroitic Cursive Meroitic Hieroglyphs Malayalam Mongolian Meetei Mayek Myanmar Nko Ogham Ol Chiki Old Turkic Oriya Osmanya Phags Pa Inscriptional Pahlavi Phoenician Miao Inscriptional Parthian Rejang Runic Samaritan Old South Arabian Saurashtra Shavian Sharada Sinhala Sora Sompeng Sundanese Syloti Nagri Syriac Tagbanwa Takri Tai Le New Tai Lue Tamil Tai Viet Telugu Tifinagh Tagalog Thaana Thai Tibetan Ugaritic Vai Old Persian Cuneiform Yi Inherited Common Unknown
Saturday, July 28, 2012
The Globalization of Knowledge
Jürgen Renn (ed)
Jürgen Renn (ed)
Preface Jürgen Renn
About the Contributions
World Map – Chapter Overview
About the Contributors
1 The Globalization of Knowledge in History: An Introduction Jürgen Renn and Malcolm D. Hyman
- 1.1 The Development of Knowledge as a Global Learning Process
- 1.2 The Role of Knowledge in Globalization Processes
- 1.3 A Theoretical Framework for Studying the Globalization of Knowledge
- 1.4 A Historical Outline of the Globalization of Knowledge2 Knowledge and Science in Current Discussions of Globalization Helge Wendt and Jürgen Renn
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Major Contributions to a History of Globalization
- 2.3 Knowledge and Science in Narratives of Globalization
- 2.4 Revisiting Europe from a Global Perspective
- 2.5 Capitalism and Industrial Revolution as Controversial Milestones of Globalization
- 2.6 Summary
- 2. Acknowledgement3 Survey: From Technology Transfer to the Origins of Science Malcolm D. Hyman and Jürgen Renn
- 3.1 The Beginnings of the Globalization of Knowledge
- 3.2 The Spread of Knowledge in the Context of the Migration of Early Humans
- 3.3 The Spread of Agriculture and Other Early Cultural Techniques
- 3.4 The Spread of Animal Husbandry and Implications for Long-Distance Transport
- 3.5 The Spread of the Proto-Indo-European Language as an Example of Knowledge Disseminated Through Language
- 3.6 Urbanization in Babylonia and the Invention of Writing
- 3.7 Multilingualism, Language Contact and the Spread of Knowledge
- 3.8 The Spread of Babylonian Culture
- 3.9 Greek Science and Its Counterparts
- 3.10 Interpreting Early History with the Help of a Typology of Knowledge
- 3.11 From Practical via Symbolic to Scientific Knowledge
- 3.12 Knowledge Representations in Early History
- 3.13 A Typology of Transmission Processes
- 3.14 From the Early History of Knowledge to the Origins of Science4 Technological Transfer and Innovation in Ancient Eurasia Daniel T. Potts
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Terminology and Ideology
- 4.3 Inverting Kroeber's Stimulus Diffusion Model: From Polemics to Applied Science
- 4.4 A Eurasian Problem: Western Influences in the Development of Chinese Metallurgy
- 4.5 New Perspectives on an Old Problem
- 4.6 Perspectives on the Study of Technology Transfer in Eurasian Metallurgy
- 4.7 Fellow Travelers in Eurasian Transfers
- 4.8 Conclusions5 Writing, Language and Textuality: Conditions for the Transmission of Knowledge in the Ancient Near East Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Writing, Language, and Kulturtechnik
- 5.3 Writing and Textuality: Different Levels of Representation of Knowledge
- 5.4 Literacy and the Material Aspects of Writing6 The Origins of Writing and Arithmetic Peter Damerow
- 6.1 Globalized Systems of Writing and Arithmetic
- 6.2 When is Writing Writing and When Is Arithmetic Arithmetic?
- 6.3 The Emergence of Proto-Cuneiform Bookkeeping in the Ancient Near East
- 6.4 The Inherited Semantics of Proto-Cuneiform Administrative Tablets
- 6.5 The Emergence of Proto-Cuneiform Bookkeeping as a Transformation Process
- 6.6 The Unexplored Transition from Proto-Writing and Proto- Arithmetic to Writing and Arithmetic7 Globalization of Ancient Knowledge: From Babylonian Observations to Scientific Regularities Gerd Graßhoff
8 The Creation of Second-Order Knowledge in Ancient Greek Science as a Process in the Globalization of Knowledge Mark Schiefsky
9 Survey: Knowledge as a Fellow Traveler Jürgen Renn
- 9.1 The Stratification of Knowledge and the Historical Superposition of Globalization Processes
- 9.2 The Accumulation of a Potential for Science
- 9.3 The Role of Empires and the Fragility of Higher-Order Knowledge
- 9.4 The Role of Religion and the Endurance of Higher-Order Knowledge
- 9.5 Science as a Fellow Traveler
- 9.6 The Nature of Religious Knowledge
- 9.7 The Impact of Different Forms of Knowledge Representation
- 9.8 Knowledge Transmission Processes Between Self-Reinforcement and Immune Reaction
- 9.9 Science as an Insular Phenomenon10 The Spread of Buddhism as Globalization of Knowledge Jens Braarvig
- 10.1 Basic Tenet of Buddhism
- 10.2 Geographical Spread of Buddhism
- 10.3 The Importance of Literacy in Buddhism as Opposed to Orality in the Hindu Traditions
- 10.4 The Text, the Image of the Buddha and the Community of Monks: The Historical Continuity of Buddhism
- 10.5 The Diffusion of Buddhist Dogmas, Rules and Conceptual Schemes by Narratives and Motifs
- 10.6 The Silk Road and the Spread of Buddhism to China and East Asia
- 10.7 The Spread of Buddhism to Tibet
- 10.8 Conclusions11 The Transmission of Scientific Knowledge from Europe to China in the Early Modern Period Matthias Schemmel
- 11.1 The Global Spread of Modern Science
- 11.2 Science and Technology in China Before the Jesuit Intervention
- 11.3 How Scientific Knowledge Came to Be Transmitted by the Jesuits
- 11.4 Constraints of the Jesuit Context of Knowledge Transmission
- 11.5 The Impact of European Scientific Knowledge on the Chinese Tradition
- 11.6 The Transformation of Knowledge in the Process of Transmission
- 11.7 The Encounter of Two Systems of Knowledge
- 11. Acknowledgments12 Normative Islam and Global Scientific Knowledge Birgit Krawietz
- 12.1 Knowledge Transmission and Institutions of Higher Learning
- 12.2 Broader Access to Global Secular Knowledge Through Westernization
- 12.3 Problems with Normative Islam in Western Islamic Sciences and Beyond13 From Khwarazm to Cordoba: The Propagation of Non-Religious Knowledge in the Islamic Empire Gotthard Strohmaier
- 13.1 Introduction
- 13.2 A Special Position of the Christians
- 13.3 A New Kind of Uniformity
- 13.4 Autochthonous Greek Learning versus Indian Science
- 13.5 The Role of the Courts14 The Sciences in Europe: Transmitting Centers and the Appropriating Peripheries Manolis Patiniotis and Kostas Gavroglu
- 14.1 Introduction
- 14.2 Historical Background
- 14.3 Newtonianism in the Greek Intellectual Context
- 14.4 Centers and Peripheries
- 14.5 New Trends in the Historiography of Science
- 14.6 Conclusions15 The Naturalization of Modern Science in South Asia: A Historical Overview of the Processes of Domestication and Globalization Dhruv Raina
- 15.1 Introduction
- 15.2 The Encounter Between Modern Science and South Asian Knowledge Systems
- 15.3 The Modernity of Science and the Nation
- 15.4 Science in Development and Decolonization16 Survey: The Place of Local Knowledge in the Global Community Jürgen Renn
- 16.1 Local Knowledge in the Niches of a Globalized World
- 16.2 Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Development of Local Knowledge and the Example of Local Navigation Techniques
- 16.3 The Double Function of Local Knowledge
- 16.4 First and Second-Order Knowledge and their Representations
- 16.5 Modernization Without Alternatives?
- 16.6 The Unexploited Potential of Local Knowledge in a Post-Colonial World
- 16.7 The Generative Ambiguity of External Representations
- 16.8 The Four Phases of Knowledge Transmission
- 16.9 The Global Context of Encounters Between Local and Global Knowledge
- 16.10 The Role of Local Knowledge as a Matrix of Globalization17 Taking China to the World, Taking the World to China: Chen Hengzhe and an Early Globalizing Project Denise Gimpel
18 The Introduction of the European University System in Brazil Oscar Abdounur and Adriana Cesar de Mattos
- 18.1 Introduction
- 18.2 The Prehistory of the Creation of Universities in Brazil
- 18.3 The Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932
- 18.4 The Creation of the USP in the Context of the Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932
- 18.5 The International Perspective in the Creation of the USP
- 18.6 The Internal Structure of the USP and the Controversial Status of Mathematics
- 18.7 Fantappiè and the Dispute Concerning the Chair of Calculus at the Polytechnic School
- 18.8 The Shift of the Mathematics Curriculum
- 18.9 Conclusions19 Celestial Navigation and Technological Change on Moce Island Jarita C. Holbrook
- 19.1 Introduction
- 19.2 Navigation Techniques of the Moce Islanders
- 19.3 First Phase: Blown by the Wind
- 19.4 Navigation Techniques of Moce Islanders Phase II: First-Generation Stellar Navigators
- 19.5 Technological Change: Motoring Along
- 19.6 Discussion
- 19.7 Technological Change in Lau
- 19.8 Conclusions20 Translation of Central Banking to Developing Countries in the Post-World War II Period: The Case of the Bank of Israel Arie Krampf
- 20.1 Introduction
- 20.2 Knowledge, Translation and the International Policy Discourse
- 20.3 The International Discourse and Regional Convergence
- 20.4 The International Policy Discourse of Central Banking
- 20.5 The Worldwide Diffusion of Developmental Central Banking
- 20.6 Mutual Interdependence Between the Government and the BoI
- 20.7 Conclusions
- 20. Acknowledgments21 On Juridico-Political Foundations of Meta-Codes Richard Rottenburg
- 21.1 Introduction
- 21.2 The Case Study
- 21.3 The Main Hypothesis
- 21.4 The Meta-Code in Heterogeneous Trading Zones22 The (Ir)Relevance of Local Knowledge: Circuits of Medicine and Biopower in the Neoliberal Era Hansjörg Dilger
- 22.1 Introduction
- 22.2 Governing Health in the Era of Structural Adjustment and HIV/AIDS
- 22.3 Technologies of the Self in “New” Approaches to Prevention, Care and Treatment
- 22.4 Beyond NGOs and “the Clinic”: Local Moral Worlds and the Limitations of Biopower in Tanzania
- 22.5 Conclusion: Knowledge, Practice and (Bio)Power in the Context of Globalization23 The Transformations of Knowledge Through Cultural Interactions in Brazil: The Case of the Tupinikim and the Guarani Circe Mary Silva da Silva and Ligia Arantes Sad
- 23.1 Introduction
- 23.2 A Glimpse into History
- 23.3 Identity, Language and Religion
- 23.4 Indigenous Practices
- 23.5 Education
- 23.6 Changes in Cultural Practices24 Survey: The Globalization of Modern Science Jürgen Renn and Malcolm D. Hyman
- 24.1 A New Stage in the Globalization of Knowledge
- 24.2 The Disciplinary Integration and Spread of Knowledge in the Age of Classical Science and European Imperialism
- 24.3 The Disintegration of Knowledge and the Globalization of Science in the Age of the Great Wars
- 24.4 Modes of Reflection on Globalized Science in the Age of Liberalization
- 24.5 The Persistence of the “Classical Image of Science”
- 24.6 The Formation of Socioepistemic Complexes and the Onset of Socioepistemic Evolution
- 24.7 The Perspectives of Social Studies of Science and of Historical Epistemology
- 24.8 Pathways to Socioepistemic Evolution
- 24.9 Nuclear Physics and the Emergence of Big Science
- 24.10 High-Energy Physics as an Example of Impartial Big Science
- 24.11 Climate and Energy Challenges and the Quest for Socioepistemic Evolution
- 24.12 Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering as Pathways to Socioepistemic Evolution
- 24.13 Global Health as a Challenge to Sociocultural Evolution
- 24.14 Toward a Global Knowledge Infrastructure
- 24.15 Science as a Medium of Reflection for a Globalized World25 The University of the 21st Century: An Aspect of Globalization Yehuda Elkana
- 25.1 Introduction
- 25.2 Toward Global Contextualism
- 25.3 Academic Freedom
- 25.4 Psychology and the Theory of Meaning
- 25.5 Redesigning Undergraduate Curricula
- 25.6 A New Introductory Seminar
- 25.7 Curriculum Research and the Future of Higher Education
- 25.8 Appendix: Principles for Rethinking Undergraduate Curricula for the 21st Century, A Manifesto26 The Soviet Psychologists and the Path to International Psychology Ludmila Hyman
27 The Global Diffusion of Nuclear Technology Angelo Baracca
- 27.1 Introduction
- 27.2 “Romantic” Phase: Early Research and Diffusion Mechanisms
- 27.3 The War and the Manhattan Project: Diffusion or Secrecy of Knowledge?
- 27.4 After the War: Monopoly or International Control?
- 27.5 The Turning Point: “Atoms for Peace,” the Supermarket of (Dual-Use) Nuclear Technology
- 27.6 The Landscape Becomes more Complicated: Other Incentives, New Fields
- 27.7 The Establishment and Implementation (or Violation) of the Non-Proliferation Regime
- 27.8 What Changed after the Collapse of the Soviet Union and the End of the Cold War?
- 27.9 Present Problems, Perspectives, Dangers … and Hopes
- 27.10 Conclusions28 The Role of Open and Global Communication in Particle Physics Hans Falk Hoffmann
- 28.1 Introduction
- 28.2 Particle Physics: A Global Science
- 28.3 Open Communication: Global Collaboration to Address Complex Science Issues
- 28.4 Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Infrastructure in Particle Physics
- 28.5 Conclusions29 Internationalism and the History of Molecular Biology Hans-Jörg Rheinberger
30 The Role of Chemistry in the Global Energy Challenge Robert Schlögl
- 30.1 Introduction
- 30.2 Energy and Climate
- 30.3 The Scale of the Energy Challenge
- 30.4 Energy and Chemistry: EnerChem
- 30.5 Energy Scenarios
- 30.6 One Possible Target Scenario
- 30.7 Technical Summary
- 30.8 Global Aspects of Chemistry for Energy
- 30.9 Limiting Factors Within the Science
- 30.10 Global External Interfaces
- 30.11 Conclusions
- 30. Acknowledgements31 Climate Change as a Global Challenge – and its Implications for Knowledge Generation and Dissemination Daniel Klingenfeld and Hans Joachim Schellnhuber
- 31.1 The Global Character and Phenomenology of Climate Change
- 31.2 Responding to a Global Challenge with a Global Scientific Assessment Effort: The IPCC
- 31.3 Recent Findings in Climate Change Science Through World-Class Cooperation
- 31.4 From Insights to Actions: The Need for Global Governance and the Emergence of Local Action
- 31.5 The Limits to Science and Reason?32 Toward an Epistemic Web Malcolm D. Hyman and Jürgen Renn
- 32.1 Introduction
- 32.2 What is Fundamentally New About the Web as a Knowledge Representation Technology?
- 32.3 What Are the Shortcomings of the Present-Day Web?
- 32.4 What Are the Options for Future Developments of the Web?
- 32.5 Knowledge: The Perspective of Historical Epistemology
- 32.6 A Short History of Knowledge Representation Technologies
- 32.7 Challenges for the Future of the Web
- 32.8 The Epistemic Web
- 32. Acknowledgments