The British Institute for the Study of Iraq Books Online
All of BISI's books are available for free download from these pages.
The Nimrud Wine ListsVolume: I1972Format: Hardback xv, 167p ; 29cm.ISBN: ISBN-13: 978-0-903472-00-5. ISBN-10: 0-903472-00-7Price: £9.95Notes: pdf
The Nimrud Wine Lists
The Governor’s Palace ArchiveVolume: II1973Format: 283 pp., 98 plates of cuneiform and photos, hardbackISBN: ISBN-13: 978-0-903472-01-2. ISBN-10: 0-903472-01-5Price: £9.95Notes: pdf
The Governor’s Palace Archive
The Tablets from Fort ShalmaneserVolume: III1984Format: xii + 289 pp, 40 plates, hardbackISBN: ISBN-13: 978-0-903472-08-2. ISBN-10: 0-903472-08-2Price: £30Notes: Out of print.
The Tablets from Fort Shalmaneser
Literary Texts from the Temple of NabûVolume: IV1996Format: x + 62 pp., 157 plates, hardbackISBN: 9780903472159Price: £24.95Notes:
The library of Nimrud, probably established in 798 BC, was a prestigious royal foundation whose scribes had contacts all over the East, particularly with Nineveh. The 259 cuneiform tablets and fragments which constituted the library mainly described magical and medical rituals, prayers and instructions for training scribes. All the epigraphic finds from Sir Max Mallowan's excavations of 1955-7 are described in this volume, with additional material from the Iraq Archaeological Service's excavations of 1985.
Literary Texts from the Temple of Nabû
The Nimrud Letters 1952Volume: V2001Format: xii + 307 pp., 64 plates, hardbackISBN: ISBN-13: 978-0-903472-20-3; ISBN-10: 0-903472-20-1Price: £40.00Notes: In 1952 in one wing of the North-West Palace at Nimrud, ancient Kalhu, Max Mallowan excavated an archive room containing royal correspondence from the reigns of Tiglath-pileser III and Sargon II of Assyria. Subjects include Assyrian military activity in Babylonia and on the northern frontier, royal building projects, events on the Phoenician seaboard, and relations with King Midas of Phrygia. Some texts were published in Iraq between 1955 and 1974; the majority have remained unpublished until now. Two hundred and forty-three texts are published here; most are in New Assyrian script and the remainder in New Babylonian. Chapters divide the tablets into the geographical areas they are concerned with. The texts are presented with transliterations, translation and notes. Plates at the end of the book give facsimiles of the tablets.
The Nimrud Letters 1952
Documents from the Nabu Temple and from Private Houses on the CitadelVolume: VI2019Format: Hardback, pp. i-viii, 340 including Plates I-VI, 1-44ISBN: ISBN-10 0-903472-34-0Pdf: CTN 6.pdfNotes:This penultimate volume of CTN provides an up-to-date edition and commentary on two major archives from the Kalhu acropolis, from the field seasons of 1953-1956: the business documents (mostly grain loans on triangular dockets) and a few administrative texts from the Nabu Temple (Part I: texts Nos. 1-59) and the legal documents from the household of Šamaš-šarru-uṣur (Part II: Nos. 60-115); also included are three texts from the “Town Wall Palace” (Part III: Nos. 116-118). S. Herbordt provides a new study of the seal impressions based on drawings and photos, and photographs of both the impressions and unsealed tablets are included where available. The handcopies on Plates 1-44 are from Wiseman, Parker, Postgate and Mattila.Many of these texts were edited previously by Wiseman and Parker in articles in Iraq, but some were only catalogued and others had lain for years uncopied in both the Iraq Museum and the British Museum. Bringing them all together has enabled a more detailed study of the two main archives with the benefit of the advances in our understanding of Neo-Assyrian over the last half century. This gives a valuable insight into the activities of both a major temple and an elite household in the 8th-7th centuries BC.
- Ivories from Nimrud
Equestrian Bridle-Harness Ornaments: Catalogue & Plates
Format: x+48 pp., 46 pls., hardback
Equestrian Bridle-Harness Ornaments
Ivories in the Assyrian StyleVolume: II1970Format: v + 60 pp., 46 pl., hardbackNotes: Out of print.
Ivories in the Assyrian Style
Furniture from SW 7, Fort ShalmaneserVolume: III1974Format: 120 pp., 111 pls., hardbackISBN: 0-903472-02-3Price: £9.95Notes: pdf
Furniture from SW7 Fort Shalmaneser
Ivories from Room SW 37, Fort Shalmaneser, part IVolume: IV/11986Format: 276 pp, hardbackISBN: 0-903472-10-4Notes: Text. Out of print.
Ivories from Room SW 37 Fort Shalmaneser part I
Ivories from Room SW 37, Fort Shalmaneser, part 2Volume: IV/21986Format: 472 pls., hardbackNotes: Plates. Out of print.
Ivories from Room SW 37 Fort Shalmaneser part 2
The Small Collections from Fort ShalmaneserVolume: V1992Format: xiv + 145 pp., 104 pls., hardbackISBN: 0-903472-12-0Price: £19.95Notes: pdf
The Small Collections from Fort Shalmaneser
Ivories from the North West Palace (1845-1992)Volume: VI2009Format: 168 + 138 pp, 138 b/w, 24 colour plates, hardbackISBN: 9780903472265Price: £75.00Notes:
The great, ninth century palace which Ashurnasirpal II (883-859) built at his new capital of Kalhu/Nimrud has been excavated over 150 years by various expeditions. Each has been rewarded with remarkable antiquities, including the finest ivories found in the ancient Near East, many of which had been brought to Kalhu by the Assyrian kings. The first ivories were discovered by Austen Henry Layard, followed a century later by Max Mallowan, who found superb ivories in Well NN. Neither Layard nor Mallowan was able to empty Well AJ: this was achieved by the Iraqi Department of Antiquities and Heritage, who retrieved arguably the finest pieces found at Nimrud. Finally, an interesting collection of ivory and bone tubes was found by Muzahim Mahmud, the discoverer of the famous Royal Tombs, in Well 4.
This volume publishes for the first time the majority of the ivories found in the Palace by location. These include superb examples carved in Assyria proper and across the Levant from North Syria to Phoenicia and provide an outstanding illustration of the minor arts of the early first millennium. In addition ivories found in the Central Palace of Tiglath-pileser III and fragmentary pieces found in the domestic contexts of the Town Wall Houses are also included.
In addition to a detailed catalogue, this book also aims to assess the present state of ivory studies, discussing the political situation in the Levant, the excavation of the palace, the history of study, the various style-groups of ivories and their possible time and place of production. This volume is the sixth in the Ivories from Nimrud series published by BISI.
Ivories from Rooms SW11/12 and T10 Fort Shalmaneser, parts 1-2Volume: VII/1-22013Format: Hardback, 2 vols.ISBN: 9780903472296Price: £90.00Notes:
The attached PDF contains the text of volume I: Chapters 1-6 and the Appendices. The full contents, including the Catalogue and Colour & Black and White Plates, are available as print only and can be ordered from Oxbow Books for £90.00. BISI members receive a 20% discount.pdf
About Ivories from Nimrud VII - The Lost Art of the Phoenicians
Fifty years have passed since the British School of Archaeology in Iraq raised the last ivory from the soil of Fort Shalmaneser. Literally thousands were found, many of which have already been published in Ivories from Nimrud I-V, while VI recorded the outstanding pieces from the North West Palace. Ivories from Nimrud VII, Ivories from Rooms SW11/12 and T10 completes the publication of the assemblages in the Fort, as far as records permit. The ivories of Room SW11/12 are similar in character to those of Room SW37 and probably represent another consignment of booty, while those of T10 in the Throne Room block include pieces from all four traditions, as well as some entirely new ones.
With the primary publication completed, it is now possible to look at these remarkable ivories as a whole rather than studying them by provenance, as is discussed in detail in the Commentary. Not surprisingly, it immediately becomes apparent that the majority can be assigned to the Phoenician tradition. There are at least twice as many Phoenician ivories than the other Levantine and Assyrian ivories. They form therefore an incredible archive, recording the lost art of the Phoenicians, long famed as master craftsmen.
The Phoenician ivories can be divided into two; the finest, the Classic Phoenician, often embellished with delicate, jewel-like inlays, and the other examples still clearly Phoenician in style and subject. While the Classic pieces were probably carved in a single centre, possibly Tyre or Sidon, the others would have been carved in a variety of different Phoenician centres, located along the Mediterranean seaboard.
Designs on Syrian-Intermediate ivories are versions of some Phoenician subjects, employing different proportions and styles. They may represent the art of the recently-arrived Aramaean kingdoms, copying their sophisticated neighbours, while North Syrian ivories are entirely different in subject and character and derive from earlier Hittite traditions.
The ivories found at Nimrud present a unique resource for studying the minor arts of the Levantine world.
Ivories from Rooms SW11/12 and T10 Fort Shalmaneser
- Abu Salabikh Excavations
The West Mound Surface Clearance
Format: Paperback, 111 pp
Notes: Available to download in PDF format from the Archive of Mesopotamian Archaeological Reports at Stony Brook University Digital Library.
Graves 1 to 99Volume: II1985Format: Paperback, 224 ppISBN: 9780903472098Price: £9.95
Catalogue of Early Dynastic PotteryVolume: III1987Format: PaperbackISBN: 9780903472111Price: £9.95
The 6G Ash-Tip and its Contents: Cultic and Administrative Discard from the Temple?
Format: Paperback, 234 pp
Notes: Part I: Text available to download in PDF format from the Archive of Mesopotamian Archaeological Reports at Stony Brook University Digital Library.
Part II: Illustrations available to download in PDF format from the Archive of Mesopotamian Archaeological Reports at Stony Brook University Digital Library.
- Tell Brak Excavations
Excavations at Tell Brak, Vol. I: The Mitanni and Old Babylonian Periods
Notes: This volume is currently out of print.
Available to download in PDF format from the Archive of Mesopotamian Archaeological Reports at Stony Brook University Digital Library.
Excavations at Tell Brak, Vol II: Nagar in The Third Millennium BCVolume: II2001Format: Hardback, 643p, H280 x W216 (mm) 100s of b/w figs and illusISBN: 9780951942093Price: £95.00
Excavations at Tell Brak Vol. IV: Exploring a Regional Centre in Upper Mesopotamia, 1994-1996
Format: Hardback, 512pp, H280 x W216 (mm) 326 b/w figs, 79 tbs
- Samarra Studies Publication Series
Samarra I: The Historical Topography of Samarra
Format: 426p, A4, 91 pls, 116 b/w illus, paperback
Notes: Originally published in conjunction with the Max van Berchem Foundation, the BISI/BSAI has re-published with some revisions Alastair Northedge’s Historical Topography of Samarra in a paperback version with a new preface commenting on Samarra’s recent tragedies. This is the first fundamentally new work to come out in half a century on one of the world’s most famous Islamic archaeological sites: Samarra in Iraq. This capital of the Abbasid caliphs in the 9th century is not only one of the largest urban sites worldwide, but also gives us the essence of what the physical appearance of the caliphate was like, for early Baghdad is long lost. It was known not only for its famous spiral minarets, but also for its Golden Dome over the tombs of the Imams, and its long avenues of mud-brick architecture - the latter still visible, although the Golden Dome was horrifically destroyed in a bombing in February 2006 and its two remaining minarets in another bombing in June 2007. With the end of Saddam’s regime in Iraq, there is renewed interest in the Abbasid caliphate “the Golden Age of Early Islam”, rightly seen as the foundation of modern Iraq.
Northedge sets out to explain the history and development of this enormous site, 45 km long, using both archaeological and textual sources to weave a new interpretation of how the city worked: its four caliphal palaces, four Friday mosques, cantonments for the military and for the palace servants, houses for the men of state and generals. Samarra is particularly strong on the archaeology of sport: polo grounds, courses for horse-racing, and hunting reserves. After treating the origins of the Abbasid city under the Sasanians, the author then analyses each sector of the city, and explains why it was abandoned at the end of the 9th century. The volume is abundantly illustrated with aerial photographs of the site. This is the first of a series of Samarra Studies; in the second, The Archaeological Atlas of Samarra (2015), the archaeological remains are catalogued, and in the third, Pottery from Samarra, the ceramic finds from the archaeological survey will be published.
Alastair Northedge is Professor of Islamic Art and Archaeology at Université de Paris 1. He has worked in Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, and conducted projects at Amman in Jordan, and Ana in Iraq, in addition to Samarra. He is the author of Studies on Roman and Islamic Amman, and joint author of Excavations at Ana, with Andrina Bamber and Michael Roaf.
The Historical Topography of Samarra
Archaeological Atlas of Samarra: Samarra Studies II
Format: 831 pp, A4, hardback, 2 volumes and 1 fascicle
Notes: The Archaeological Atlas of Samarra sets out to map and catalogue the site and buildings of the Abbasid capital at Samarra in the period 836 to 892 AD, preserved as they were until the middle years of the 20th century. Site maps and catalogues are provided of all the approximately 5819 building and site units identified. This is the first time that it has been possible to catalogue nearly all the buildings of one of the world’s largest ancient cities, from the caliph palaces to the smallest hovels.
Alastair Northedge is Professor of Islamic Art and Archaeology at Université de Paris 1 (Panthéon-Sorbonne). He has worked in Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, and conducted projects at Amman in Jordan, Ana in Iraq, and Misriyan in Turkmenistan, in addition to Samarra. He is the author of Studies on Roman and Islamic Amman, and joint author of Excavations at Ana.
Dr Derek Kennet is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Archaeology at Durham University where he has been since 1998. His research area includes the later pre-Islamic to Islamic periods of Iraq, the Gulf and the western Indian Ocean. He has conducted fieldwork in Iran, India, Kuwait, the UAE and Oman.
Published by: The British Institute for the Study of Iraq with support from the Fondation Max van Berchem
- Iraq Archaeological Reports
Excavations at 'Āna: Qal'a Island
Format: Paperback, 192pp, H297 x W210 (mm) 16 plates, 57 figures
This was a rescue project in the basin of the Qadisiyya Dam recently completed at Haditha. Qal'at 'Ana is an island in the stream of the Euphrates, the site of the ancient and medieval city of 'Ana, since the 17th century downgraded to a village and palm-gardens, while the town moved to the right bank. 'Ana, on the Middle Euphrates some 150 km below the modern Iraqi-Syrian border, a very beautiful place, was the centre of an autonomous governorate under the Assyrians, a border fortress under the Parthians, Romans and Sasanians, and a caravan town and bedouin centre under Islam.
Available for download in PDF format from the Archive of Mesopotamian Archaeological Reports at Stony Brook University Digital Library.
Excavations at Tell Rubeidheh: an Uruk Village in the Jebel HamrinEditor: R.G. KillickVolume: II1988Format: PaperbackISBN: 9780856684319Price: £19.95Notes: Available for download in PDF format from the Archive of Mesopotamian Archaeological Reports at Stony Brook University Digital Library.
Settlement Development in the North Jazira, Iraq: a Study of the Archaeological LandscapeVolume: III1995Format: Paperback. 240p, H297 x W210 (mm) with b/w pls, maps and line-drawingsISBN: 9780856686580Price: £35.00
The Excavations at Tell al Rimah: The PotteryVolume: IV1997Format: Paperback, 276p, H297 x W210 (mm) copious pls, figs, tabsISBN: 9780856687006Price: £25.00Notes: Introductory report and a detailed illustrated catalogue of the pottery finds from this second millennium BC Assyrian site, in modern northern Iraq.
Available to download in PDF format from the Archive of Mesopotamian Archaeological Reports in the Stony Brook University Digital Library.
Artefacts of Complexity: Tracking the Uruk in the Ancient Near EastEditor: J.N. PostgateVolume: V2002Format: Paperback, 264p, H297 x W210 (mm) many b/w illus and figsISBN: 9780856687365Price: £40.00Notes:
The late 4th millennium in South Mesopotamia is universally known as the Uruk Period because it is at Uruk that the German excavations have exposed the most remarkable manifestations of this complex society. Although the Uruk period in Iraq itself remains little understood, in recent decades artefacts and entire settlements have been discovered in places as far apart as the Mahi Dasht in Iran and the Euphrates in South-eastern Turkey. This volume attempts to track the Uruk phenomenon in the Near East, bringing together research on some of the most significant individual sites within the Levant and Egypt, placing emphasis on the artefactual evidence. The eleven papers were originally presented at a conference in Manchester in 1998. The contributors are Hans Nissen, Renate Gut, Mitchell Rothman, Virginia Badler, Joan Oates, Marcella Frangipane, Gil Stein, Fiona Stephen, Edgar Peltenburg, Govert van Driel, Graham Philip and Toby Wilkinson.
Secrets of the Dark Mound: Jemdet Nasr 1926-19282002ISBN: 0856687359
- Other Publications
The Old Babylonian Tablets from Tell al Rimah1976Format: xvi + 272pp., 122 plates, hardbackISBN: 0903472031, ISBN-13: 978-0903472036Notes:
Out of print.
Fifty Years of Mesopotamian Discovery: The Work of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 1932-1982Editor: J. Curtis1982Format: 120pp., paperbackISBN: 0903472058Notes:
Out of print.
The Middle Babylonian Legal and Economic Texts from Ur1982Format: 203pp., 4 plates, hardbackISBN: 0903472074Notes:
Out of print.
Nimrud: An Assyrian Imperial City Revealed2001Format: Paperback, 309p, H239 x W159 (mm) 175 b/w illus, maps and plans, 16 col plsISBN: 9780903472258Price: £19.95Notes:
Nimrud (ancient Kalhu) in northern Iraq, was the capital of the Assyrian Empire during most of the 9th and 8th centuries BC, and remained a major centre until the destruction of the Empire in 612 BC. This authoritative account, written by two of the excavators of the site, traces its history and its gradual revelation through archaeological excavation, begun by Layard in the 19th century and continuing to the present day. The volume is abundantly illustrated and includes finds that have not previously been published, together with illustrations and the most complete account in English so far of the remarkable discoveries made in recent years by Iraqi archaeologists in the tombs of the Assyrian Queens.
The Published Ivories from Fort Shalmaneser, Nimrud2004ISBN: 9780903472166Price: £18.00Notes:
Nimrud is an exceptionally generous site, and has richly rewarded those that work there. It was first famous for the Assyrian bas reliefs found by the 19th century archaeologist, Austen Henry Layard, but is also famous for the thousands of ivories found during the 19th and 20th centuries. The ivories were mostly imported from the Levantine kingdoms to the west, either as tribute or booty, although there were some in the distinctive local Assyrian style. They were used to embellish furniture, as well as small objects, and are carved in a great variety of styles, but interestingly with a relatively limited repertoire of subjects. Their time of manufacture probably dates to the early centuries of the first millennium BCE, although their archaeological context is dated by the fall of the Assyrian empire in 614-612 BCE. This publication is a supplement to the volumes already published, which catalogue the ivories, and instead presents scans from the original photographs, where possible, of the ivories from Fort Shalmaneser, which have been published in the first five volumes, so that scholars can select and rearrange ivories as appropriate. In this way, the next generation of work involving deeper stylistic and analytic studies by a range of scholars asking different questions may be undertaken.
Studies in the Ancient History of Northern Iraq (reprint)2005Format: Hardback, 176p, H285 x W220 (mm) b/w illus, 16 b/w plateISBN: 9780903472197Price: £30Notes:
Subsequent examination of Stein’s draft-manuscript showed that further investigation and a more leisurely assessment were demanded by the range and importance of the subject and by changing perspectives. With the aid of the Stein Bequest to the British Academy, David Oates gave new substance to ‘the lost traveller’s dream’, extending it widely into a more general account of the Mesopotamian scene from the Assyrian period in the second millennium BC to the struggles of Rome and Byzantium with the Parthians and Sasanians in the early centuries AD. The book concludes with a study of little-known Hellenistic, Roman and Parthian pottery, mostly from the author’s excavations.
David Oates went on to serve the British School of Archaeology in Iraq as field director at Nimrud, director of the excavations at Tell al-Rimah, as Director of the School in Baghdad, Member of the Council, Chairman and President. David Oates died in 2003 and the reprinting of this volume by the School in his memory has been generously funded by The Charlotte Bonham-Carter Charitable Trust.
There have been no changes to the text or images (including a Foreword by Sir Mortimer Wheeler) and the pagination has remained the same. David’s widow and long-time collaborator, Dr Joan Oates, has added a Preface illustrated by a photograph from the author’s collection.
Languages of Iraq: Ancient and ModernEditor: Nicholas Postgate2007Format: pp. viii, 187. 32 b/w maps and illustrations. Size 240 x 160mmISBN: 978-0- 903472-21-0Price: £15Notes:
For all five thousand years of its history Iraq has been home to a mixture of languages, spoken and written, and the same is true today. In November 2003, to celebrate the country's rich diversity and long history as a centre of civilisation, BISl presented a series of talks by experts on each of the major languages of Iraq and their history, and this illustrated volume brings these now to a wider public.
Iraq's languages come from different linguistic families - Semitic, Indo-European, and agglutinative languages like Sumerian, Hurrian and Turkish. Some, although long dead, have a prime place in the history of the Old World: Sumerian, probably the first language to be written and the vehicle of cuneiform scholarship for more than two millennia, and Akkadian, the language of Hammurapi and the Epic of Gilgamesh, and used across the Near East for administration and diplomacy. The history of Aramaic is even longer, stretching back to overlap with Akkadian before 1000 BC. It survives, precariously, in both written and spoken forms, being one of four languages spoken in Iraq today. Of these Arabic as a major world language has often been described, but here we have an account of the vernacular Iraqi Arabic dialects, and the descriptions of Iraqi Kurdish and Turkman are unique, detailed and authoritative.
Printed by Cambridge University Press.
New Light on Nimrud: Proceedings of the Nimrud Conference 11th-13th March 2002Editor: J.E. Curtis, H. McCall, D. Collon and L. al-Gailani Werr2008Format: 336 pages, 9 pages colour plates, 8 pages plans & 295 b/w illustrations. Hardback, A4ISBN: ISBN 978-0-903472-24-1Price: £40.00Notes:
This book publishes 34 papers by international and Iraqi experts given at a conference on Nimrud at The British Museum in 2002. Excavations at the important Assyrian capital city of Nimrud have continued intermittently since 1845, culminating with the discovery in 1989-90 of the tombs of the Assyrian queens with astonishing quantities of gold jewellery. All aspects of the excavations and the various finds and inscribed material from Nimrud are considered in this volume, with particular attention being paid to the tombs of the queens and their contents. The evidence of inscriptions and the results of paleopathological investigation are brought together to identify the bodies in the tombs. There is much previously unpublished information about the tombs, and the jewellery is fully illustrated in eight colour plates. Finally, the significance of Nimrud as one of the greatest sites in the Ancient Near East is fully assessed.
Once There Was a Place: Settlement Archaeology at Chagar Bazar, 1999-2002Volume: 20102010Format: Paperback, 428p, 88 platesISBN: 9780903472272Price: £25.00Notes:
This volume presents the research of the British team within the modern excavations at the northern Mesopotamian site of Chagar Bazar, resumed in 1999 after a 62-year hiatus since the excavations of Max Mallowan. It incorporates settlement archaeology approaches and theoretical ideas of “place” in exploring the site and its internal and external landscapes. The primary focus is the settlement during the early 2nd millennium BC (Old Babylonian Period, post-Samsi-Addu), its final ancient occupation. The authors have taken a contextual approach, integrating aspects of the settlement’s internal variations, including both community and private architecture, together with burial practices and symbolic and functional material culture. While its political importance varied, Chagar Bazar’s persistence of occupation meant that it played a key role within the regional landscape as a meaningful landmark.
Your Praise is Sweet - A Memorial Volume for Jeremy Black from Students, Colleagues and FriendsEditor: Heather D. Baker, Eleanor Robson and Gábor Zólyomi2011Format: Hardback, A4, 472 pp (xii + 460)ISBN: ISBN- 978-0-903472-28-9Price: £35Notes:
This volume is intended as a tribute to the memory of the Sumerologist Jeremy Black, who died in 2004. The Sumerian phrase, ‘Your praise is sweet’ is commonly addressed to a deity at the close of a work of Sumerian literature. The scope of the thirty contributions, from Sumerology to the nineteenth-century rediscovery of Mesopotamia, is testament to Jeremy’s own wide-ranging interests and to his ability to forge scholarly connections and friendships among all who shared his interest in ancient Iraq.
Basra: Its History, Culture and Heritage - Proceedings of the Conference Celebrating the Opening of the Basrah Museum, September 28-29, 2016Editor: Dr Paul Collins2020Format: Paperback, pp. 80, A4ISBN: ISBN 978-0-903472-36-4Price: £12Pdf: Basra.pdf